Glossary

ISQ

Implant stability quotient

Kaplan-Meier estimate

Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of …

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LAL

Light Adjustable Lens

Laser etching

Application of a laser beam to selectively ablate a material from a surface (e. g. surface)

Late implant failure

Syn.: Secondary implant failure Failure of an implant after integration has been established. This maybe due to overload or periimplantitis.

LCP

Locking Compression Plate Locking Compression Plate (LCP) Implants are taken for temporary fixation, correction or stabilization of bones in various anatomical regions. The plates come in different sizes and shapes according to the anatomy and the intended purpose. Screws are locked in the plate, and the physiological load (F) is transferred from the bone to …

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leadless pacing

pacemaker without cable electrodes (e.g. MICRA™-TPS-System, Nanostim™-Device)

Life table analysis

Statistical method to describe the survival (e. g. implants) in a sample. The distribution of survival times is divided into a certain number of intervals. For each interval, one can compute the number and proportion of cases that entered the respective interval “alive”, the number and proportion of cases that failed in the respective interval …

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LLIF

Lateral Lumbal Interbody Fusion

Locator

A locator is used as abutment on dental implants to fix a denture as a snap-on. There may be used 2, 4 or even more for one jaw. It is used on many types of dental implants. A variation is the raptor. Balls and magnets are used for the same reason, but are not as common. …

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Longitudinal study

A study in which observations on the same subjects are made at two or more different points in time.

LTSP

 Locking Trochanter Stabilizing Plate

machined surface

Syn.: Turned surface An implant surface that results from the milling process of a cylindrical titanium rod. The scratches of the tooling on the implant form a machined implant surface.

Magnesium

Magnesium can be used as implant material. It has metallic strength and can be bioabsorbed (converted in magnesium oxide and hydrogen, degradation, corrosion). It can be used to stabilize bone fractures. Mechanical properties are similar those of natural bone.   more details: 1. Bioresorbable Magnesium Implants for Bone Applications by Olga Wetterlöv Charyeva

malleolus

The hammer-shaped bony protrusions on the tibia (malleolus medialis) and fibula (malleolus lateralis), which are part of the upper ankle joint as a malleolus fork, are called malleolus.

Mammography

Use of radiography (X-rays) of the breast to detect breast cancer. Recommended as a screening technique for early detection of breast cancer.

Mandibular staple implant

Syn.: Transmandibular implant. An dental transosseous implant in which a plate is fixed at the inferior border of the mandible. Retentive screws are placed partially into the inferior border with two continuous screws going transcortically and penetrating into the mouth in the canine areas and used as abutments for a removable denture.

Manufacturers Sharing Patient-Specific Information from Medical Devices with Patients Upon Request

This guidance represents the current thinking of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) on this topic. It does not establish any rights for any person and is not binding on FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if it satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations. To discuss …

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Mastopexy

Plastic surgery to raise and reshape sagging (ptotic) breasts into a more elevated position.

Material for bone regeneration

A biomaterial, resorbable or non-resorbable, placed surgically on the surface of a bone, with or without loss of tissue, to obtain selective or guided tissue regeneration.

Matrix

An intricate network of natural or synthetic fibers that aids in the reinforcement and development of tissues by supplying a scaffold on which cells may grow, migrate and proliferate.

Maxillary sinus

Syn.: Antrum, Maxillary antrum, Antrum of Highmore Air cavity in the body of the maxilla that is lined by the Schneiderian membrane consisting a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. It normally lies superior to the roots of the premolars and molars and generally extends from the canine or premolar region posterior to the molar or tuberosity …

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maxillofacial

relating to the maxilla (upper jawbone) and the face. Maxillofacial surgery is a specialization of medicine and/or dentistry that focuses on problems around the mouth, jaw, midface and neck. Anatomical limits and skills differ country-to-country. In some countries doctors attend medical school, dental school and than an additional residency. In other countries they attend either …

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MCP

Metacarpophalangeal joint

MCPM

Monocalcium Phosphate Monohydrate

Mean

(arithmetic) Measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the individual values in the group and dividing by the number of values in the group.

Mechanical Heart Valve

durability Mechanical heart valves can last indefinitely (tested over 50,000 years in an accelerated tester) types Caged-ball valve Tilting-disc valves Bileaflet heart valves materials Carbon, titanium, titanium coated with pyrolytic carbon, Teflon (PTFE), polyester, dacron side effects Mechanical heart valves require lifelong treatment with blood thinners (anticoagulants) and periodically blood tests to monitor. adverse effects …

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Median

Measure of central tendency. It is the middle score in a distribution or set of ranked scores. When the number of values in the sample is even, the median is computed as the average of the two middle values.

Medical device

ISO: A medical device is a product, such as an instrument, machine, implant or in vitro reagent, that is intended for use in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases or other medical conditions.

Medical Device (Definition)

EUROPE The full EU MDR Medical Device definition is: ‘medical device’ means any instrument, apparatus, appliance, software, implant, reagent, material or other article intended by the manufacturer to be used, alone or in combination, for human beings for one or more of the following specific medical purposes: diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, prediction, prognosis, treatment or alleviation of …

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membrane

A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Membranes can be biological and synthetic.

Mesostructure

Dental The part of a dental reconstruction, that couples the implant complex (infrastructure) to the suprastructure.

Meta-analysis

A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies measuring specified protocol criteria (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions that may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, and plan new studies.

MICS

Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

MIS

Minimally Invasive Surgery

MIS

Minimally Invasive Spine (port system or access)

MLD

Molecular layer deposition

Modulus of elasticity

Ratio of stress over strain., when the deformation is elastic. It is a measure of stiffness or flexibility of a material. A stiff material has a high modulus of elasticity and a flexible material ha s a low modulus of elasticity. Syn.: Young´s modulus

Morse taper connection

Dental An internal connection interface consisting of a converging circular surface, which forms a mechanical locking friction-fit. Also known as cold weld.

MSC

Mesenchyymal Stem Cell

MTP

metatarsophalangeal

Mucosal insert

Syn.: Button implant, epithelial implant, intramucosal insert, mucosal implant. Mushroom-shaped device fastened to the tissue surface of a removable denture that fits within a prepared gingival receptor site. The use of multiple mucosal inserts enhances a denture´s retention and stability. As it does not perforate dermal/mucosal integrity, it is no real implant.

MVR

Mitral Valve Regurgitation

myopia

Myopia, or near-sightedness or short-sightedness, is an eye disorder where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina. This causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal. Myopia may cause headaches and eye strain.

NADIA

Neurovascular Anticipating Distraction Interference Arthrodesis Bridging the sacroiliac joint from posterior to eliminate neurovascular risks, which could happen with laterally-based techniques. (Ilion Medical)

NAMed

The DIN Standards Committee Medicine (NAMed) is responsible for the national standardization work and represents the German standardization interests at the European level (CEN).

nCPAP

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

Necrosis

Death of tissue may be caused by insufficient blood supply, trauma, radiation, chemical agents or infectious disease.

neurostimulation

Neurostimulation is a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. It applies electrical currents, in varying parameters, by means of implanted electrodes to achieve functional activation or inhibition of specific neuronal groups, pathways, or networks. For intracranial neurostimulation, stimulation electrodes are inserted into intracerebral targets in ‘deep brain stimulation’ (DBS) or placed over the cortical convexity for ‘cortical …

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NFC

Near-field communication It enables two electronic devices to communicate with each other in a short distance (4cm, 1.6 in). NFC can be used in transmitting implants, like chip implants, stimulation implants.  

Nitinol

Nitinol is an acronym for “NIckel TItanium Naval Ordnance Laboratory”. Nitinol is the intermetallic phase NiTi with an ordered cubic crystal structure that differs from that of titanium and nickel and consists of about 55% nickel, the rest being titanium. The alloy can be used up to 650 °C, is corrosion-resistant and high-strength, but can …

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nonocclusal loading

Dental The restoration is not in occlusal contact with the opposing dentition in maximal intercuspal position or in excursions. also: nonfunctional loading

Nonresorbable

Property of a material, that does not degrade over time.

Notified body

A notified body is an independent, third party, accredited body which is entitled by an authorized accrediting body. Upon definition of standards and regulations, the accrediting body may allow a notified body to provide verification and certification services. These services are meant to ensure and assess compliance to the previously defined standards and regulations, but …

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Novolimus™

Novolimus™ is an active metabolite of Sirolimus. NOVOLIMUS™ is developed by Elixira Medical Corp. It is a mTOR inhibitor macrocyclic lactone with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties.

Nylon

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt-processed into fibers, films, or shapes. Nylon polymers can be mixed with a wide variety of additives to achieve many different property variations. Nylon products for medical use have …

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OC

Osteochondral

Occlusal loading

Dental The restoration is in occlusal contact with the opposing dentition in maximal intercuspal position and/or excursions

OCT

Occipito-cervico-thoracic

ODM

Original Development & Design Manufacturing

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

OFP

operation free period

On-X Mechanical Heart Valve

Less bleeding risk than other mechanical aortic heart valves, because of the lower amount of blood thinner required. results Hideki T. et al: 10-results of On-X bileaflet mechanical heart valve…..

one-piece

One-piece dental implants do not only consist of the artificial root, but are also firmly connected to the abutment that supports the dental crown. Advantages: – No micro-cleft with hygienic problems – Smaller implants possible, smaller wound, faster surgery – Simplified definitive care, cheaper Disadvantages – Insertion divergences (can be corrected in some systems by …

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One-piece abutment

Dental An abutment that connects into the implant without the use of an additional screw. The abutment can be retained by cements, friction (press-fit), or screw threads.

One-piece implant

Dental The implant in which the endosseous and transmucosal portions consist of one unit which presents a surface without a joint to the tissues.

One-stage implant

Dental Syn.: Nonsubmergible implant, single-stage implant. An endosseous dental implant designed to be placed following a one-stage surgery protocol. The implant is designed with a transmucosal coronal portion. Usually the transmucosal portion and the implant are one piece with no microgap.

Onlay graft

Augmentation by placing autogenous bone and/or a bone replacement graft on or over bone to increase length and/or width.

oral

“Oral” relates to the mouth.

Oral mucosa

Epithelial lining of the oral cavity continuous with the skin of the lips and mucosa of the soft palate and pharynx. The oral mucosa consists of: 1. Masticatory mucosa: Mucosa of the gingiva and hard palate. 2. Specialized mucosa: Mucosa of the dorsum of the tongue. 3. Lining mucosa (Syn.: Alveolar mucosa): The remaining mucosa …

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Organoids

Organoids are multicellular structures that can be derived from adult organs or pluripotent stem cells. Early versions of organoids range from simple epithelial structures to complex, disorganized tissues with large cellular diversity.  

Orthodontic implant

Dental Any implant used during orthodontic treatment as anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement.

Osseointegration

The term refers to the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing (Albrektsson et al. in 1981) artificial implant. A more recent definition (by Schroeder et al.) defines osseointegration as “functional ankylosis (bone adherence)”, where new bone is laid down directly on the implant surface and the implant …

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Osteoblast

A fully differentiated cell that originates in the embryonic mesenchyme and, during the early development of the skeleton, functions in the formation of bone tissue. Osteoblasts synthesize the collagen and glycoproteins that form the bone matrix, and also produce inorganic salts. With growth, they develop into osteocytes.

Osteoclast

Large multinucleated cell, arising from mononuclear precursor of the hematopoietic lineage, that functions in the breakdown and resorption of osseous tissue.

Osteoconduction

Osteoconduction occurs when the bone graft material serves as a scaffold for new bone growth that is perpetuated by the native bone. Osteoblasts from the margin of the defect that is being grafted utilize the bone graft material as a framework upon which to spread and generate new bone. In the very least, a bone …

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Osteocyte

An osteoblast that has become embedded within the bone matrix, occupying a flat oval cavity (bone lacuna). Cells found in bone lacunae send, through canaliculi, slender cytoplasmic processes that make contact with processes of other osteocytes.

Osteoinduction

Osteoinduction involves the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts that then begin new bone formation. The most widely studied type of osteoinductive cell mediators are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).  

Osteoinductive

De novo production of bone out of pluripotent reserve cells (stem cells), they are present in perivascular tissue and bone and they may activated through morphogene factors. Osteoinductive substances must lead to an ektope bone building at an extraskeletal place.

Osteolysis

Osteolysis is an active resorption of bone matrix by osteoclasts. Although osteoclasts are active during the natural formation of healthy bone the term “osteolysis” specifically refers to a pathological process. Osteolysis may occur around implants by inflammation, immunological response, tumors, cysts or changes in the bone’s structural load.

Osteoprogenitor cell

An undifferentiated cell that possesses the ability to transform into a bone forming cell.

Osteopromotion

Osteopromotion involves the enhancement of osteoinduction without the possession of osteoinductive properties. For example, enamel matrix derivative has been shown to enhance the osteoinductive effect of demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA), but will not stimulate new bone growth alone.

Osteotomy

Any surgical procedure in which bone is transected or cut.

Overdenture

Dental Removable partial or complete denture, which may be implant-supported or implant-tissue-supported. The prosthesis is retained by attachments.

Oxidized surface treatment

Modification of the surface oxide properties of titanium implants by alteration of the oxide layer thickness.

P-value

Probability that a test statistic will assume a value as extreme as or more extreme than that seen under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.

pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the natural pacemaker of the heart) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to influence the electrical conduction system of an organ. Traditionally is meant the organ heart, but there are more. The heart´s natural pacemaker in the sinoatrial …

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PAEK

Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) is a family of semi-crystalline thermoplastics. PAEK includes PEK, PEEK, PEKK, PEEKK, PEKEKK. They have high-temperature stability and high mechanical strength. Due to its excellent resistance to hydrolysis it is used in medical devices because it does not break down when sterilized. It is used in spinal and hip implants. PEKEKK is used to …

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Palatal implant

Dental Mainly an orthodontic implant. Also used as additional implant in special situations.

Palpability

The ability to feel something und der the skin with the hand, e. g. an implant.

Parallel-sided implant

Dental Syn.: Parallel-walled implant, straight implant. An endosseous, root-form dental implant, with the body of the implant having the same diameter at the coronal and apical ends. The coronal diameter does not necessarily match that of the platform, which may be of a larger diameter.

Parylene

Parylene is the trade name for a variety of chemical vapor deposited poly(p-xylylene) polymers used as moisture and dielectric barriers. Parylene coatings are moisture and chemical barriers for medical device components. It peovides a pinhole-free barrier to protect against body fluid as well as moisture, chemicals and common gases. It may be used for coronary …

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Passivation

A process by which metals (e.g. titanium) and alloys are made more resistant to corrosion through treatment to produce a thin and stable oxide layer on the external surfaces.

Passive fit

Fit that does not induce strain between two or more implants.

PBMC

Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell

PCB

printed circuit boards A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electrical or electronic components using conductive tracks. Implants may contain PCBs if electronic tasks are to be performed (example: pacemakers, transmitter implants).

PCF

Posterior Cervical Fusion The PCF technique joins the bones in the back of the cervical spine together.

PCI

Percutaneous coronary intervention (aka arthroplasty) Percutaneous coronary intervention is a procedure used to open blocked coronary arteries (caused by coronary artery disease). It restores blood flow to the heart muscle without open-heart surgery. Angioplasty can be done in an emergency setting such as an acute heart attack or in an elective setting when heart disease …

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PCL

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

PDA

patent (persistent) ductus arteriosus This is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening, called the ductus arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby’s circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, however, it’s called a patent ductus arteriosus. If it´s …

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PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factors

PDLLA

poly-DL–lactide acid Polylactide (Poly(lactic acid), PLA) is polymer obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of lactide (cyclic dimer of lactic acid) as monomer. Since lactide has 3 optical isomer as L-lactide, D-lactide, and DL-lactide, the polymers obtained from L-lactide, D-lactide, and DL-lactide are abbreviated to PLLA, PDLA, and PDLLA, respectively. The chemical properties of L-lactide and …

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PDO

Polydioxanon

PEK

Polyetherketone see: PAEK

PEKEKK

Polyetherketoneetherketoneketone belongs to PAEK

PEMA

poly ethyl methacrylate

PERV

porcine endogenous retroviruses

PFO

patent foramen ovale The blood in a child in the womb is bypassed by a connection between the two atria of the heart. This connection is called the foramen ovale. After birth, the child starts to breathe independently and the connection between the atria closes. In as many as 1 out of 4 people the …

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PFR

Patello-Femoral-Replacement

PGA

Polyglycolic Acid

PGCL

75% glycolide, 25% -caprolactone (source: Riverpoint Medical)

PGLA

PLGA, PLG, or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) is biodegradable and biocompatible. PLGA undergoes hydrolysis in the body to produce the original monomers: lactic acid and glycolic acid.

PIOL

phakic intra ocular lenses

PLA

Polylactic acid.

Platelet-derived growth factors

Growth factors released by platelets that initiate connective tissue healing including bone regeneration and repair. They also increase mitogenesis, angiogenesis and macrophage activation.

Platelet-poor plasma

refers to a lesser concentration of active platelets that remain from the separation process in which the formation of platelet-rich plasma is derived.

Platelet-rich plasma

Autologous product derived from whole blood through the process of gradient density centrifugation. Its intended purpose lies in its ability to incorporate high concentrations of growth factors and fibrin into a graft mixture.

Platform switching

Dental Syn.: Abutment swapping. The use of an abutment with a diameter narrower than that of the implant platform. This switching moves the implant-abutment junction away from the edge of the platform.

PLGA

Polylactide co-glycolide

PLIF

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

PLLA

poly-l–lactide acid Polylactide (Poly(lactic acid), PLA) is a polymer obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of lactide (cyclic dimer of lactic acid) as monomer. PLLA polymer is mainly applied for absorbable bone fixture and utilized for stent and adhesion barrier. When the stereo complex PLA (scPLA) is formed with PLLA and PDLA, scPLA has higher melting …

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PLM

Private Label Manufacturer

PMMA

see: Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PMMA-HEMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

POCT

posterior occipital cervical thoracic

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

also: PMMA, brand names: Plexiglass, Acrylite, Lucite, Perspex and many others. Chemistry: Poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate). It is often technically classified as a type of glass hence its occasional historic designation as acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is an economical alternative to polycarbonate (PC) when tensile strength, flexural strength, transparency, …

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polycarbonate-urethane

Polyurethane (PUR / PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate) links. Fully reacted polyurethane polymer is chemically inert. Carcinogenity is not known. More health information is available – USA: Polyurethane Manufacturers Association (PMA), Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) – Europe: ISOPA (European Diisocyanate and Polyol Producers Association) Examples for …

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Polyethylene

Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic. Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula (C2H4)n. PE is usually a mixture of similar polymers of ethylene with various values of n.                   Application: Implantable products, sutures, …

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Polyethylene Terephtalate

The most common thermoplastic polymer. Other names: Dacron (a Dupont Brand), Terylene (Britain), Lavsan (Russia). Abbreviations: PET, PETE, PETP, PET-P. Chemical: Poly(ethyl benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) The majority is used as synthetic fibers, e.g. bottles. For implantation it is used in vascular and heart applications, as nonresorbable suture material, heart valves.

Polyglycolic acid

A polymer of glycolic acid used for absorbable sutures and membranes.

Polyimides

Polyimides (PIs) occupy a particular place in commercial plastics because of their ability to tolerate and function in extremely high temperatures. They are also well known for other properties including insulating capability, chemical resistance, and excellent mechanical attributes. From a medical perspective and aside from tubing, polyimides present attractive options for encapsulation of implantable devices …

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Polylactid acid

A polymer of lactic acid used for absorbable sutures or membranes.

polypropylene

Polypropylene (PP, also polypropene), is made via chain-growth polymerization from the monomer propylene. Polypropylene belongs to the group of polyolefins. Its properties are similar to polyethylene, but harder and more heat resistant. It has a high chemical resistance. Polypropylene is the second-most widely produced commodity plastic after polyethylene. In medicine it is used mostly in …

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Polysulfone

A family of themoplastic polymers, like the reaction of a diphenol and bis(4-chlorophenyl)sulfone, forming a polyether by elimination of sodium chloride: n HOC6H4OH + n (ClC6H4)2SO2 + n Na2CO3 → [OC6H4OC6H4SO2C6H4]n + 2n NaCl + n H2O + n CO2. Chemistry: Polysulfone allows easy manufacturing of membranes, with reproducible properties and controllable size of pores down …

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Polytetrafluorethylene

also: PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. The best known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon. Chemistry: poly(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethylene), . Application: Coating of catheters, vascular grafts, prostheses. see: ePTFE      

Polyurethane

also: Polyurethan, PUR, PU chemistry:  Application: Artificial hearts, pacemakers, implantable defibrillators.

POM

Polyoxymethylene

POP

pelvic organ prolaps Pelvic organ prolapse is when one or more of the organs in the pelvis slip down from their normal position and bulge into the vagina. Find more here: NHS UK, healthtopquestions, Wikipedia (german)

porcine

Of or pertaining to the pig.

PORP

Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis

posterior stabilized

A posterior stabilized knee implant replaces the PCL with a cam and post design of the knee replacement that ensures femoral rollback. The advocates of the PS knee design claim more predictable knee ligament balancing and more predictable flexion. The opposition of PS knee designs claim the cam and post design causes additional polyethylene wear, …

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PPP

Platelet-poor plasma

Preload

Energy transferred to a screw when a torque is applied during tightening.

Press fit

Retention of a root-form implant from close proximity of the bone. Retention of certain components into an implant.

Progenitor cell

An undifferentiated cell that possesses the ability to transform into one or more types of cells.

PRP

Platelet-rich-Plasma

PRT

Phospholipid reduction treatment (PRT) for mitigated calcium absorption The presence of phospholipids in the pericardial tissue play a key role in the calcification process of bioprostheses as their phosphate heads are potential binding sites for circulating calcium ions. The PRT process removes phospholipids using Octanediol, a long chain alcohol that possesses a lipid-soluble tail to …

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Pterygoid implant

Dental A root-form implant that has its origin in the region of the former second or third maxillary molar and its end point encroaches in the scaphoid fossa of the sphenoid bone. The implant follows an intrasinusal trajectory in a dorsal and mesio-cranial direction, perforating the posterior sinusal wall and the pterygoid plates.

PTFE

see: Polytetrafluorethylene

Punch technique

Circular incision made in the soft tissue over a submerged dental implant, manually or mechanically, to get access to the implants platform, usually after the healing period.

PVDF

Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride. Compared to other fluoropolymers, like polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), PVDF has a low density (1.78 g/cm3). It is denser than nylon. In medical use, PVDF is used as an artificial membrane (usually with 0.22 or 0.45-micrometre pore sizes), on …

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QCT

quantitative computed tomography

Question de demander à votre chirurgien au sujet de l´augmentation mammaire

deutsch        english       español Quelles questions devriez-vous poser à votre chirurgien au sujet de l’augmentation mammaire ? La liste de questions suivante peut vous aider à vous rappeler les sujets à discuter avec votre chirurgien. Vous pouvez également avoir d’autres questions. 1. Quels sont les risques et les complications liés à …

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Questions de demander à votre dentiste au sujet des implants dentaires

deutsch   english   espagñol Quelles questions devez-vous poser à votre dentiste au sujet des implants dentaires ? La liste de questions suivante peut vous aider à vous rappeler les sujets à discuter avec votre dentiste. Il est possible que toutes les questions ne s’appliquent pas ou que d’autres questions soient utiles. 1. Quels sont les risques …

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R value

A two-dimensional roughness parameter calculated from the experimental profiles after filtering. Ra: The arithmetic average of the absolute value of all points of the profile, also called central line average height Rt: The maximum peak-to-valley height of the entire measurement trace.

Ramus frame implant

Dental Full arch mandibular implant with a tripodal design that consists of a horizontal supragingival connecting bar with endosseous units placed into the two rami and symphyseal area.

Ramus implant

Dental Type of blade implant placed into the anterior border of the ramus of the mandible.

RAP

see: Regional acceleratory phenomenon

Raptor

A raptor (i.e. TRI® Raptor) is used as abutment on dental implants to fix a (over)denture as a snap-on. There may be used 2, 4 or even more for one jaw. A variation is the locator. Balls and magnets are used for the same reason, but are not as common.         pictures …

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RBM

Resorbable Blasting Media

Re-entry

The surgical reopening of a site to improve or observe results obtained from the initial procedure.

Recipient site

Site which received a soft or hard tissue graft. Syn.: Host site.

Regional acceleratory phenomenon

RAP A local response to a stimulus in which tissues form 2 to 10 times more rapidly than the normal regeneration process. The duration and intensity of RAP are directly proportional ton the kind and amount of stimulus and the site where it was produced.

Rejection

Immunological response of incompatibility in a transplanted or implanted material.

Removable prosthesis

Dental restoration that is removable by the patient. The restoration may be partial arch (RPD): Removable partial denture, or complete arch (RCD: Removable complete denture)

Removal torque value

Syn.: Reverse torque value Measure of the rotational force needed to rupture the bone-implant interface of a screw- or pin-form implant in bone.

Resonance Frequency Analysis

Technique for clinical measurement of implant stability/mobility in bone. The measurement is registered from a transducer attached to the implant. The device records the resonance frequency arising from the implant-bone interface (change in amplitude over induced frequency band) Acro.: RFA

Resorption

Loss of substance or bone by physiologic or pathologic means.

respiratory

The human respiratory system cares for gas exchange.  The respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. Air has to …

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Rev-erbα

The nuclear receptor Rev-erbα controls circadian thermogenic plasticity. Gerhart-Hines Z, et al. Nature. 2013. Nature. 2013 Nov 21;503(7476):410-413. doi: 10.1038/nature12642. Epub 2013 Oct 27. Abstract Circadian oscillation of body temperature is a basic, evolutionarily conserved feature of mammalian biology. In addition, homeostatic pathways allow organisms to protect their core temperatures in response to cold exposure. …

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Reverse Torque Test

Test used to assess the extent of osseointegration of an implant, specifically the shear strength at the bone-implant interface, by applying a rotational force in a direction opposite to that used to place the implant. Acro.: RTT

RFA

Resonance Frequency Analysis

RFID

radio frequency identification Radio frequencies are used to read information from a “tag” that can be either “passive” or “active”. A passive tag has no power source while an active tag is supplied with power, usually from a small battery. The method used to communicate with the tags is referred to as “Near Field Communication” (NFC).

rhBMP

see Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein

Ridge preservation

Dental Syn.: Extraction socket graft, socket graft, socket preservation. The immediate placement of a grafting material or any procedure, performed on the extraction socket following tooth extraction. This is done to avoid bone and/or soft tissue resorption to maintain substance for fixing a denture or accepting an implant.

Risk groups

There are some risk groups in planning implant surgery, e.g.: Blood disorder, coagulation Tumors Diabetes mellitus HIV Corticosteroids Biphosphonate Medication Bone disorders Dysfunction, Dysgnathia Smokers Handicapped These groups need special planning, special care and contraindication may be wise.

RTT

Reverse Torque Test

RTV

Removal torque value

RVAD

right ventricular assist device A right ventricular assist device (RVAD) pumps blood from the right ventricle or right atrium into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs. A ventricular assist device stabilizes the heart function after injury, such as a heart attack. It’s also used after severe heart failure that does not improve with medicines. …

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S value

A three-dimensional roughness parameter calculated from topographical images. Sa: The arithmetic average of the absolute value of all points of the profile, it is a height descriptive parameter. Scx: A space descriptive parameter. Sdr: The developed surface area ratio.

Sacral Neuromodulation

Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) or sacral nerve stimulation or a bladder pacemaker is a treatment used to help patients with bladder control problems. It is also known as Interstim therapy. SNM uses mild electrical pulses to stimulate the sacral nerve located near the tailbone, which controls the bladder and other muscles that manage urinary function. A …

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Saline

A solution of sodium chloride (salt) and water.

Sandblasting

Grit blasting of an implant surface using sand to increase the surface.

Saucerization

The excavation of tissue to form a shallow shelving depression, usually performed to facilitate drainage from infected areas of bone. The shallow saucer-like depression on the upper surface of a vertebra that has suffered a compression fracture. Dental: Pericervical depression around an dental implants neck.

Scaffold

A 3D biocompatible construct that serves as a framework which provides a structure on which tissue is growing. It may be replaced by naturel tissue.

Scalloped implant

Dental A root-form dental implant with the level of the implant-abutment junction different facially to lingually.

Schneiderian membrane

Syn.: Sinus membrane (maxillary). Layer of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells lining the maxillary sinus.

SCS

Spinal Chord Stimulator Spinal Chord Stimulation

SD

see: Standard Deviation.

SDAB

surface-decalcified allogeneic bone

Selective Laser Sintering

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) or only laser sintering is a generative layer construction method. With the aid of laser beams, any three-dimensional geometries can be produced from a plastic powder. These can also have undercuts that cannot be produced in conventional mechanical or casting production. Laser sintering is a popular process in rapid prototyping because …

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Seroma

Localized collection of serum, the watery portion of blood. Seroma

Shear stress

Stress caused by a load (two forces applied toward one another but not in the same straight line) that tends to slide one portion of object ove another.

Silicon Nitride

Beta-SiAlON type ceramic What are SiAION Ceramics? SiAlONs are ceramic alloys based on the elements silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) and were developed in the 1970s to solve the problem of silicon nitride (Si3N4) being difficult to fabricate. As alloys of Si3N4, SiAlONs exist in three basic forms. Each form is …

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Silicone

also: Polysiloxanes Chemistry: Polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, frequently combined with carbon and/or hydrogen. In implants it is used for glaucoma drain, artificial iris, cochlear prosthesis, ear tubes, breast implants, hernia mesh and intrauterine devices …

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silk biopolymer

Distinguish natural and synthetic silk polymers. Synthetic: Innovative biofibers made from a silk protein of the green lacewing are being developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP in conjunction with the company AMSilk GmbH. Researchers are working on producing the protein in large quantities by using biotechnology. The aim is to use …

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Sintered surface

An implant surface produced when spherical powders of metallic or ceramic materials become a coherent mass with the core of the implant body. Porous surfaces are characterized by pore size, pore shape, pore volume, and pore depth.

Sintering

Heating a powder below the melting point of any component so as to permit agglomeration and welding of particles by diffusion alone, with or without applied pressure.

Sinus lift

Syn.: Sinus graft, maxillary antroplasty, sinus augmentation, sinus elevation, subantral augmentation,. Augmentation of the antral floor with bone and/or bone substitutes to accommodate dental implant insertion.

Sinus pneumatization

Maxillary sinus enlargement. With aging, especially after loss of maxillary teeth and reduction of masticatory forces acting on the maxilla, the sinus walls get gradually thinner and the maxillary sinus increases in size.

Sinusitis

Inflammation of the sinus maxillaris. Signs include sensitivity of teeth to percussion, fever, and facial swelling. Symptoms may include nasal congestion, post nasal discharge, facial pain, headache, rhinorrhea, halitosis, popping of ears, and muffled hearing. It may occur with oral surgery combined with dental implants or augmentation (sinus elevation, sinuslift).

Sirolimus

Sirolimus (aka “rapamycin”), is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It is immunsuppresiv. It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2) through mTOR inhibition. It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

SLA

Sandblasted, Large-Grid, Acid-Etched A method for treating titanium implant surfaces, to magnify the surface of the implant.

SLA-SH®

Sandblasted, Large-Grid, Acid-Etched–SuperHydrophilicity-Activated A method to magnify titanium implant surfaces and to improve hydrophilicity (used by Cowellmedi Co., Ltd.)

SLS

see Selective Laser Sintering

SNM

Sacral Neuromodulation

soft tissue

Soft tissue connects, supports or surrounds other structures of the body. Soft tissue includes connective tissue as there are tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat and synovial membranes and as well not connective tissue as muscles, nerves and blood vessels.

Stage-one surgery

Dental Syn.: First-stage surgery. A surgical procedure that consists of placing an endosseous implant in the bone and suturing of the soft tissue over the implant, thereby submerging the implant under the soft tissue for healing.

Stage-two surgery

Dental Syn.: Second-stage surgery Surgical procedure consisting of the exposure of a submerged implant to the oral environment by the connection of an abutment which extrudes through the soft tissue.

Stainless Steel

also: inox steel, inox. A steel alloy with a minimum of 10,5% chromium content by mass. There are more than 150 grades of stainless steel, some systems of grading steel. It is used when properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required. It forms an inert film of chromium oxide on its surface. This layer …

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Standard deviation

Acro.: SD Statistical term. A measure of the variability, or dispersion of a distribution of scores. The more scores cluster around the mean, the smaller the standard deviation.

stapedoplasty

The stapedoplasty is a surgery of the middle ear in order to improve hearing. It consists of removing the stirrup, which is static and unable to transmit sonic vibrations, replacing it with a microscopic metallic prosthesis. Stapedoplasty is effective in the event that there are signs of otosclerosis. In this disease, the bone tissue is …

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Stem cell

Undifferentiated cell of embryogenic or adult origin that can undergo unlimited division and give rise to one or several different cell types.

stent

A stent is a tiny tube. It is inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open. It is left there permanently or absorbs. Types: by anatomy bilar stent coronary stent esophageal stent nasal stent (not an implant, to be placed by oneself) prostatic stent vascular stent ureteral stent …

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Stereolithography

Syn.: Three dimensional imaging, three-dimensional modeling. Method of creating a three-dimensional model by using lasers driven by CAD software, from information derived from CT-scan. It is used for surgical planning and the generation of placing tools for implantation.

Stripping

Dental The damage (i. e., distortion or obliteration) of the internal threads of a root-form dental implant. These are important to fix the abutment.

Subtracted surface

Syn.: Subtractive surface treatment. Alteration of an implant surface by removal of material.

Success criteria

Conditions established by a study protocol for the evaluation of a procedure as a success.

Success rate

The percentage of success of a procedure or device in a study or clinical trial according to success criteria defined by the study protocol.

SUI

stress urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine. Find more at WebMD, NHS UK

Superstructure

Dental The prosthesis that is supported by implants with or without an intervening mesostructure.

Surface characteristics

The topography of an implant surface is defined in terms of form, waviness and roughness. Roughness describes the smallest irregularities in the surface, while form relates to the largest structure or profile. Waviness and roughness are often presented together under the term texture.

Surface roughness

Qualitative and quantitative features of an implant surface determined two-dimensionally by contact stylus profilometry (see: R value) or three-dimensionally by confocal laser scanner.

Surgical guide

Tool to transfer 3D-planning of implants into the surgical procedure. There exists several types of surgical guides, mor or less precisely. For instance guides for pilote drilling give a rough direction. Hull-in-hull-systems allow more precisely drilling with hulls, fitting to different drill diameters. Depth control is possible.

Survival rate

The percentage of survivals in a study or clinical trial in placing implants, defined as implants that are functioning according to predetermined criteria.

t test

Commonly used statistical method to evaluate the differences in means between two groups.

Tantalum

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. There are some specifications Tantalum is used in orthopedic and dental implants. It was used as one-material-implant and as coating. Application is rare. A current application is a dental implant with …

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Tapered dental implant

Dental An endosseous, root-form implant, with a wider diameter coronally than apically. The sides of the implant converge apically.

TAVI

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

TAVR

Transcatheter (Aortic) Valve Replacement

TCP

see: Tricalcium phosphate

Tensile stress

Stress caused by a load (two forces applied away from one another in the same straight line) that tends to stretch or elongate an object.

TGF-β

see: Transforming growth factor beta

theranostics

theranostics or personalized medicine or precision medicine is a medical model that separates people into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease. The terms personalized medicine, precision medicine, stratified medicine and P4 medicine are used interchangeably to describe this concept though some authors …

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Thread

An extruding feature of the body of threaded implants. Geometric parameters: Thread depth, thickness, pitch, face angle, helix angle. Basic thread geometries include: V-thread, buttress thread, and power (square) thread.

Thread pitch

Number of threads per unit length in the same axial plane.

THV

Transcatheter Heart Valve

tibia

The tibia, the shin bone, is the second longest bone in the human skeleton and together with the thinner fibula forms the lower part of the leg.

TIPS

transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Tissue bank

A laboratory specialized in the harvesting, processing, and sterilization of tissues from humans or animals.

Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering works with cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.

Tissue Heart Valves

Tissue heart valves are made of human or animal (usually porcine, bovine) tissue. types Some tissue valves are mounted on a frame or stent; while others are used directly (stentless). advantage Usually they do not require long-term blood thinner therapy. However, approximately one-third of patients with a tissue valve do not benefit from this, because they have …

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Titanium

  chemical element Ti, 22Ti physical Metal, high strength-to-weight-ratio. chemical Oxidizes in air. Reacts with water and forms a passive oxide coating that protects the metal from further oxidation. occurrence Ninth-most element in earth crust. About 50 grades of titanium and his alloys known, 35 grades ASTM, commercially used are Grades 1 through 4. It …

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titanium allergy

So far there is no allergy to titanium known. But there are reports about a titanium intolerance (see there).

Titanium Grade 23

Titanium Grade 23 is a variant of Grade 5. It has lower oxygen, nitrogen and iron. It has better ductility and fracture toughness that Titanium Grade 5. It is used in medical technology because of its good biocompatibility and excellent fracture toughness and crack propagation behavior. It maintains its good toughness even at low temperatures …

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titanium intolerance

Signs of an unexpected reaction or intolerance to titanium? Signs most associated with a reaction to titanium are loosening of the implant(s) (or implant failure) rash or hives acne-like swelling or inflammation of the face chronic inflammation around the implant problems with wound healing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) confusion, distraction, forgetfulness migraines muscle pain   …

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Titanium mesh

A flexible titanium grid used in bone augmentation procedures to assist in maintaining a predetermined volume for bone regeneration or fixation.

Titanium oxide

Surface layer of varying surface composition (e.g. TiO2, TiO4) immediately formed upon exposure of pure metallic titanium and titanium alloy to air. This corrosion-resistant layer protects the implant against chemical attack in biological fluids. Metal oxide blasted on implant surfaces to increase the surface area.

Titanium Plasma Sprayed

A process involving high temperature deposition of titanium powders that are totally or partially melted and then rapidly resolidified, forming a dense or porous coating. TPS

TLIF

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

TMJ

temporo-mandibular joint

TMT

tarsometatarsal

TMVR

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement

TMVr

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair

Torque

A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion. A measurement of an instrument capacity to do work or to continue to rotate under resistance to rotation. It is expressed in Newtons centimeter (Ncm).

Total hip replacement implants

Total hip replacement implants are designed to help a patient get back as close as possible to the healthy, active lifestyle before hip pain limited the mobility.  Almost all hip replacement implants have consisted of a three-part system: A hip stem, usually made from such as titanium, which is implanted down the shaft of the …

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TPS

see: Titanium Plasma Sprayed

Transforming growth factor beta

Syn.: TGF-β Transforming growth factor beta is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily. It activates different downstream substrates and regulatory proteins, inducing transcription of different target genes that function in differentiation, chemotaxis, proliferation, and activation of many immune cells. Among its key functions is regulation of inflammatory processes, particularly in the gut. …

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Transitional implant

Dental Syn.: Provisional implant Implant used during implant therapy to support a transitional fixed or removable denture. It is usually an immediately loaded narrow diameter implant, which may be removed at a later stage of treatment.

Transosseous implant

Dental Syn.: Transosteal implant Implant that completely penetrates through the edentulous ridge buccolingually. Implant that completely penetrates through the parasymphyseal region of the mandible, from the inferior border through the alveolar crest (see: Mandibular staple implant).

Tricalcium phosphate

also: TCP, tribasic calcium phosphate, bone phosphate of lime (BPL). Calcium phosphate is one of the main combustion products of bone (bone ash). Chemistry: Tricalcium phosphate (tribasic calcium phosphate or tricalcic phosphate, sometimes referred to as calcium phosphate or calcium orthophosphate, whitlockite), Ca3(PO4)2. It exists as three crystalline polymorphs α, α’, and β. The α …

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Tripodization

The placement of three or more implants with a non-linear alignment of their platform.

TRM

titanium reinforced membrane

Two-part implant

Dental A dental implant in which endosseous and transmucosal portions combine to present a joint surface to the tissues (i.e. implant-abutment junction)

Two-piece abutment

Dental An abutment that connects to the implant with the use of an abutment screw.

Two-stage implant

Dental Syn.: Submergible implant An dental endosseous implant designed to be placed according to a two-stage surgery protocol. It undergoes osseointegration while covered with soft tissue.

Two-stage surgery

Dental A surgical protocol consisting of placing an endosseous implant in the bone and leaving it covered by mucosa. A second surgery is needed to expose the implant in order to install the prosthesis.

TZP

Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal, ZrO2-Y2O3 Since the mid-1980s, zirconia has held a steady position in high-performance ceramics. By using additives from the group of oxides of rare-earth elements (yttrium, cerium), the tetragonal phase can be stabilized. Such materials with a submicron grain size are generally designated as TZP (Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals) and, depending upon the stabilizing …

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UCR

Unconditioned Reflex

UDI

Unique Device Identification Unique Device Identifier (UDI) established by the FDA The FDA established the unique device identification system to adequately identify medical devices sold in the United States from manufacturing through distribution to patient use. When fully implemented, the label of most devices will include a unique device identifier (UDI) in human- and machine-readable form, which …

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UHMWPE

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene UHMWPE is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. It has extremely long chains resulting in a very tough material, with high impact strength. Its coefficient of friction is comparable to that of PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) but it has better abrasion resistance. UHMWPE as a biomaterial is used for hip, knee and spine …

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Uncovery

Dental Popular term for the act of surgically exposing a submerged implant, following healing from stage-one surgery.

urogenital

Urogenital means “belonging to the urinary and sexual organs” or “concerning the urinary and sexual organs”. also: genitourinary system.

USS

Universal Spine System

VAD

Ventricular Assist Device

Vascularization

The process of infiltration of blood vessels; regarded as a critical support for the health and maintenance of living tissue or the integration of a graft.

VBR

Vertebral Body Replacement (in spine)

VCF

Vertical Compression Fracture (Spine)

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factors

Vent

An opening in an implant body that allows for tissue ingrowth for increased retention and stability.

Vitreous carbon

Syn.: Glass-like carbon, glassy carbon Vitreous carbon  a non-graphitizing, or nongraphitizable, carbon which combines glassy and ceramic properties with those of graphite. The most important properties are high temperature resistance, hardness, low density, low electrical resistance, low friction, low thermal resistance, extreme resistance to chemical attack and impermeability to gases and liquids. Glassy carbon is …

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VNS

VNS = Vagus Nerve Stimulation source: patient information LivaNova

Welche Fragen kann ich meinem Arzt über die Implantation einer Hüftendoprothese stellen?

Welche Fragen können Sie Ihrem Arzt zu einer geplanten Hüftendoprothese stellen? Diese Liste von Fragen kann Ihnen helfen, sich an Themen zu erinnern, die Sie mit Ihrem Arzt besprechen sollten. Es ist möglich, dass nicht alle Fragen zutreffen oder weitere Fragen hilfreich sind. 1. Warum ist bei mir eine Hüftendoprothese sinnvoll? 2. Welche alternativen Behandlungsmöglichkeiten …

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Wolff´s law

A principle stating that bone will develop the structure most suited to resist those forces acting on it.

xenogenous

heterologous Tissue grafts, when donor and recipient belong to different species.

Xenograft

Syn.: Heterogeneous graft, Heterograft. Grafting material harvested from different species from that of the recipient.

XLIF

eXtreme lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion The XLIF (eXtreme Lateral Interbody Fusion) is an approach to spinal fusion in which the surgeon accesses the intervertebral disc space and fuses the lumbar spine (low back) using a surgical approach from the side (lateral) rather than from the front (anterior) or the back (posterior). The XLIF is one …

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XLPE

Cross-linked polyethylene, commonly abbreviated PEX, XPE or XLPE, is a form of polyethylene with cross-links. Highly cross-linked polyethylene is used in artificial joints as a wear-resistant material, preferred in hip replacement because of its resistance to abrasive wear.

Y-TZP

Y = Yttrium. TZP = Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal. Y-TZP is a partly stabilized zirconium or Yttria-stabilized zirconium. Pure zirconium dioxide changes from monoclinic (stable at room temperature) to tetragonal (at about 1173 °C) and then to cubic phase (at about 2370 °C).

Zirconium dioxide

also “Zirconia” ZrO2 physical Density 5,68 g/cm³ Medical used Zirconium dioxides usually come with some dopants, which clearly improve physical properties chemical The change of volume caused by the structure transitions from tetragonal to monoclinic to cubic induces large stresses, causing it to crack upon cooling from high temperatures. When the zirconia is blended with …

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ZrO2

= Zirconium dioxide

Zygomatic implant

Dental A root-form or cylindric dental implant that has its origin in the region of the former first maxillary molar and its end point encroaches into the zygomatic bone. It is an elder technique starting in the 1970s, coming back around 2015 with the three-dimensional planning tools with more accuracy. It is used to support …

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