Neurostimulation is a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. It applies electrical currents, in varying parameters, by means of implanted electrodes to achieve functional activation or inhibition of specific neuronal groups, pathways, or networks.

For intracranial neurostimulation, stimulation electrodes are inserted into intracerebral targets in ‘deep brain stimulation’ (DBS) or placed over the cortical convexity for ‘cortical stimulation’ (CS) to administer electrical pulses to central nervous system structures.

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is the direct electrical stimulation of named nerves outside of the central neuraxis to for instance alleviate pain in the distribution of a targeted peripheral nerve.