ascending aortic prosthesis


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene


Post, to be fixed on two-part dental implants to hold a dental crown, a bar or any other attachment to stabilize a (cover)denture. It may consist of one or more components.


Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion is cervical spine surgery from the front of the neck that addresses spinal symptoms.


Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation A technique for the treatment of large isolated cartilage defects. A small sample of cartilage is harvested from a non-weight-bearing part of the joint during arthroscopy. In a laboratory the chondrocytes are dissolved away of the tissue composite and multiplied in culture dishes. After a cultivation period of 3 to 4 weeks …

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Acid etched surface

Treatment of an implant surface by acid in order to increase its surface area by subtraction.


Anterior cruciate ligament


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Additive surface treatment

Treatment of an implant surface by addition of material, e. g. to increase the surface or build an interactive layer.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


AdvaMed, or the Advanced Medical Technology Association, is an American medical device trade association. AdvaMed’s states to promote competitive policies that foster the highest ethical standards, rapid product approvals, appropriate reimbursement, and access to international markets. Some companies follow the “AdvaMed Code of Ethics on Interactions with Health Care Professionals”.  


Atomic Layer Deposition ALD uses timed pulses of reactive precursors to encapsulate all exposed surfaces of a substrate for coating. It gets its name from the nature of these pulses, each of which deposits a single self-terminating layer.  It is a subclass of chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The coating can be controlled with atomic precision.


Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion ALIF is a procedure where surgeons work on the lower spine from the front and fuse one or more vertebrae together.


allogenic Being genetically different although belonging to or obtained from the same species.  


allogeneic Being genetically different although belonging to or obtained from the same species.


A nonbiologic material such as metal, ceramic, and plastic.


Anterior Lumbar Plate (for spine)

Aluminum oxide

Al2O3 A metallic oxide Single crystal Polycrystal Used eg for dental implants, hip implants.

Alveolar defect

A deficiency in the contour of the alveolar ridge. It can be vertical (apicocoronal) and/or horizontal (buccolingual,  mesiodistal)

Alveolar process

The portion of bone surrounding and supporting the teeth. Also: Alveolar ridge, Residual ridge, Ridge.


AMIC® (Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis) is a single step, cost efficient and effective technique for treating traumatic cartilage defects. Chondro-Gide® offers a protective environment for cell differentiation and the formation of new cartilage.


annuloplasty is a surgical technique repairing heart valves


An anode is an electrode, where electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs (“-“).


Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et de produits de santé France


Anchor Peg Glenoid


Autonomic Regulation Therapy


Arthrodesis (also artificial ankylosis or syndesis), is the artificial induction of joint ossification between two bones by surgery. This is done to relieve intractable pain in a joint which cannot be managed otherwise. It is most commonly performed on joints in the spine, hand, ankle, and foot.

Artificial Kidney

The artificial kidney is not available yet. Researchers are working on it and the first implanted artificial kidney is expected in 2017. USCSF The new device being developed by a group of US universities within the Kidney Project. This small bio-artificial kidney, intended to treat end-stage renal disease (ESRD), will offer new hope to those …

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atrial septal defect An Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a common congenital cardiac defect that consists of a hole in the septum between the two filling chambers of the heart, the atriums.  


ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing and Materials), develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services (as of today some 12,575). Headquarter is near Philadelphia, U.S.A. Founded in 1898. ASTM International has no role in requiring or enforcing compliance with its standards. The standards, however, …

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Decrease in size of a cell, organ, tissue or part.


Dental: Mechanical device used for the retention and stability of a dental prosthesis.


Tissue surgically removed from one area of a person’s body and transplanted in another site on the same person.


In transplantation (and blood transfusion), when the donor and recipient are the same person.

Autonomous medical device

Autonomous medical devices, and specifically surgical robots, allow utilizing AI and precision robotics to enhance medical treatment and allow them to perform operations autonomously. By 2025, optic and orthopedic surgery applications are expected to be developed. The first autonomous and smart medical device for use in the human body could come in the form of …

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aortic valve replacement

Axial loading

Any force applied in the direction of the long axis of an implant.

Bar overdenture

Dental Removable partial or complete denture, supported by dental implants or implants and tissue. Dental implants are connected together with a bar, representing or incorporating attachment mechanisms for retention and/or support of a denture.

Barrier membrane

Device helping to confine a grafted area. It can prevent movement of a graft and/or controls the growth of undesirable cells into a site with or without grafted material.


Brain Controlled Bionic Ear


Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte German state authority for pharmaceutical products and medical devices


Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma more (WHO) more (FDA) more (Breast Implant Associated)


Bone to implant contact Direct contact of bone with an implant surface at the light microscope level.


syn.: Absorbable Property of a material that degrades and dissolves in vivo. Its breakdown products are incorporated into normal physiologic and biochemical processes (e.g. bioabsorbable membranes or sutures).


Designed to assist or modify a biological activity.

Bioactive glass

Absorbable alloplastic material composed of metal oxides: SiO2, Na2O and P2O5. It has the ability to form a chemical bond with living tissues thereby helping stabilize a filled defect site and maintaining a rigid scaffold upon which cells can migrate and grow.


Capacity of a material to fulfil its function with an appropriate response for a specific application from the receiving host. Quality of being accepted in a specific living environment without adverse or unwanted side effects. ——————————————————————————————————————— Biomaterials are non-living natural or synthetic materials that are used in contact with the living body and must therefore be biocompatible

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Progressive alteration or breakdown of a material in a biological environment.


Progressive alteration of a material in a biological environment.


The bonding of living tissue to the surface of a biomaterial or implant, which is independent of any mechanical interlocking mechanism.


A material intended to interface with the biological System to evaluate, treat, augment or replace tissue, organ or function of the organism. Material specially prepared and/or presented to exhibit bioacceptability, biocompatibility or positive biocompatibility.


Scientific field that deals with the mechanical properties of any biomechanical device, device-tissue interface or the properties of tissues themselves.


Able to replicate or imitate a body structure (anatomy) and/or function (physiology).


Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.


Bionics or biologically inspired engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.


Removal and examination of sample tissue for diagnosis.


Workable, non-resorbable glass ceramic out of the SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-Na2O-K2O-F-system by 3di GmbH. Crystal phase (ca. 60 %) with mainly phlogopit-crystals, embedded in a alumosilicateglassmatrix (ca. 40 %).

Biphasic tricalcium phosphate

also: BCP Chemistry:  Mixture of two phases, hydroxyapatite, HA, and β-tricalcium phosphate. It is a ceramic. Preparation involves the sintering causing the irreversible decomposition of calcium deficient apatites alternatively termed non-stoichiometric apatites or basic calcium phosphate, an example is: Ca10-δ(PO4)6-δ(HPO4)δ(OH)2-δ → (1-δ)Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 3δCa3(PO4)2. It has been used in implants for petiapical tooth surgery, in orthopedic surgery. …

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biventricular assist device While left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are common treatment for patients with heart failure, a sizeable portion of LVAD recipients demonstrate clinically significant postoperative right ventricular failure and potentially require a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). (Mechanical Circulatory and Respiratory Support)

Black triangle

Dental Black space visible, if the papilla (soft tissue in between two teeth) is missing or does not totally fill the embrasure space.

Blade implant

Dental A laminar endosseous implant designed to be placed within the bone in a surgically prepared thin groove, especially in narrow alveolar ridges.

Block graft

Graft consisting of an autogenous block of bone, taken from a different site and usually fixed with screws.


Bone Morphogenetic Proteins are osteogenous and osteoinductive, as they induce differentiation of tissues. They induce bone building in every tissue.


Acronym: Basic multicellular unit.

Body dysmorphic disorder

A psychological condition characterized by excessive worry about an imagined or minor physical flaw to the point that it can interfere with normal daily activities.


The hard portion of the connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton. It consists of an inorganic component (67%, minerals such as calcium phosphate) and an organic component (33%, collagenous matrix and cells) Cortical bone. Syn.: Compact bone. The noncancellous hard and dense portion of bone consisting largely of concentric lamellar osteons and …

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bone conduction

Bone conduction is the conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. Bone conduction transmission can be used with individuals with normal or impaired hearing. Bone conduction is used in the following applications: – hands-free headsets or headphones – bone-anchored hearing aids with assistive listening devices – specialized communication products …

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Bone density

There are different definitions, non of them with exact reliable data for clinical use: 1, Histological: The “density” is calculated from the percentage of all bone tissue that is constituted by mineralized bone 2, Radiological: Mineral in bone is measured by x-ray translucency, defined as Hounsfield units. 3, Clinical: Tactile assessment of bone quality while …

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Bone expansion

Surgical widening of bone to augment its volume. In oral implantology also: Ridge expansion (or splitting) to widen the residual ridge.

Bone marrow

Soft spongy tissue found in the center of bone that contains fat and/or hematopoietic tissues.


Of or pertaining to cattle.



Brazilian Butt Lift

The Brazilian buttock lift, more commonly known as a  The Brazilian butt lift (BBL) aka Brazilian buttock lift, is an aesthetic procedure that helps improve the shape of the buttocks by injecting it with fat from other areas of the body (liposuction). Other areas can be: abdomen, thighs, lower back. Commonly it is an outpatient …

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Breast Augmentation

Enlargement of the breast by surgical implantation of a breast implant. The first time a breast implant is placed to increase breast size, it is called Primary Augmentation. All subsequent times the implant is replaced, it is called Revision Augmentation.

Breast Reconstruction

A surgery to reconstruct a breast after tissue was removed because of cancer or injury.

bridge therapy

A bridge therapy means to bridge to another stage of therapy or health. There are various types of bridge therapies: Bridge to transplant Bridge to candidacy Bridge to decision Bridge to recovery Anticoagulation bridge Opposite: Destination therapy


Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing Process for direct preparation of an object from computer-acquired or computer-generated data

Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. As a food additive it is designated E170, and it has an INS number of 170.

Calcium Phosphate

Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions. Some so-called calcium phosphates contain oxide and hydroxide as well. It is used in some varieties for bone substitution as implant. Orthophosphates, di- and monohydrogen phosphates contain Ca2+ combined with PO43−, HPO42−, and/or H2PO4−: Monocalcium phosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2 …

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Calcium Sulfate

Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. One particular hydrate is better known as plaster of Paris, and another occurs naturally as the mineral gypsum. All forms are white solids that are poorly soluble in water. Calcium sulfate causes permanent hardness in water. Mixed with polymers, …

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The tissue that forms between and around fractured bone segments to maintain structural integrity and facilitate bone regeneration.

Calvarial graft

Bone graft harvested from the superior portion of the cranium. It is most frequently taken from the parietal region, generally on the right side (nondominant hemisphere) behind the coronal suture and approximately 3 cm lateral to the sagittal suture.

Capsule (contour implants)

Scar tissue that forms around the breast implant. Sometimes this capsule squeezes the implant, resulting in capsular contracture.


The human cardiovascular system consists of heart, blood and blood vessels. It includes the small, pulmonary circulation, the way through the lungs to get the blood oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, through the rest of the body.  


A cataract is an opacification of the lens of the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.


At the cathode electrons enter the cell and reduction occurs (“+”).


The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is the branch of the FDA responsible for the premarket approval of all medical devices, as well as overseeing the manufacturing, performance and safety of these devices. The definition of a medical device is given in the FD&C Act. CDRH regulatory powers include the authority to require …

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Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation Directorate General Of Health Services Ministry of Health &Family Welfare, Government of India


CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).  It is the manufacturer’s declaration that the product meets the requirements of the applicable EC directives. The mark consists of the CE logo and, if applicable, the four digit identification …

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Council of European Dentists


European Committee for Standardization CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, is an association that brings together the National Standardization Bodies of 34 European countries. CEN is one of three European Standardization Organizations (together with CENELEC and ETSI) that have been officially recognized by the European Union and by the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) as …

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In first-party certification, an individual or organization providing the good or service offers assurance that it meets certain claims. In second-party certification, an association to which the individual or organization belongs provides the assurance. Third-party certification involves an independent assessment declaring that specified requirements pertaining to a product, person, process, or management system have been …

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China Food and Drug Association State Administration for Market Regulation


colony forming unit (stem cells)

Chin graft

A bone harvested from the facial aspect of the symphyseal area of the mandible, between the mental foramina, apical to roots of teeth.

Chip Implant

A human microchip implant is typically a data transmitting device, usually encased in silicate glass. It can be used to identify persons, contain personal data like medical history, medications, contact informations.


continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion


= Critical Incident Reporting-System The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behavior that have critical significance and meet methodically defined criteria. These observations are then kept track of as incidents, which are then used to solve practical problems and develop broad psychological principles. A critical …

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= Critical Incident Technique see also CIRS

Clean Implant

CleanImplant Foundation checks  the quality of dental implants by the purity of the implant surfaces. For dentistry You will find information about the purity of implants in their packaging as they are delivered for clinical use. Literature


Carpometacarpal Joint


A substance applied to an implants surface.


Cyclic Olefin Copolymer

cochlear implant

A cochlear implant is an electronic medical device for people with severe-to-profound hearing loss. It works by transforming sounds into electrical signals that are sent straight to the auditory nerve. This means that it can bypass damaged areas of the ear.

Cohort study

A longitudinal study in which a group, the cohort, is chosen for the presence of a specific characteristic at or during a specified time and followed over time to discover presumably related characteristics.

Compter-aided navigation

Surgical placement of implants using a computer guided system based on information generated from a high resolution computed tomography.

conical connection

dental: A conical connection is an abutment connection with dental implants. Conical connections are said to be linked with the implant so tight, that they have no micromovement and help avoiding bacteria to enter into the inner part of the dental implant.   literature:  

connective tissue

Connective tissue is a basic human tissue. There are many subdivisions. It is found in between other tissues.


Cyclic Olefin Polymer


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Surgical technique in which only the bony cortex is surgically cut.


Continuous positive airway pressure.


Comprehensive Platform Management Astigmatism

Crestal implant placement

Dental The placement of a dental implant with the edge of the platform at the crest of the alveolar process. Subcrestal implant placement (the edge of the implant apical to the crest) Supracrestal implant placement (the edge of the implant coronal to the crest)

Cross-sectional study

Study that involves the observation of a defined population at a single point in time or time interval.


Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I/II, Causalgia) According to the National Health Service (NHS), pain associated with CRPS is typically caused by an injury and is usually confined to one limb, but can spread to other parts of the body. Pain symptoms include burning, stabbing or stinging, but may also include a tingling sensation and …

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Cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators

cruciate retaining

A cruciate retaining knee implant leaves an intact posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the back of the knee to help with knee flexion and ligament tension. The advocates of the CR knee design claim less bone removal from the femur, easier femoral component revision, and tighter ligaments in the back of the knee. The opponents …

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Capsular Tension Ring For the stabilization of the capsular bag in the presence of weakened or compromised zonules. Possible benefits: • Circular expansion and stabilization of the capsular bag • Safe IOL centration in eyes with zonular dehiscence • Prevents IOL decentration after capsular shrinking • Stabilized conditions during phaco emulsification surgery • Reduced risk of capsular …

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Custom abutment

Dental A custom component to wear a tooth-crown machined or cast to serve in a unique circumstance where prefabricated components are not acceptable.


A cyborg, abb. for “cybernetic organism” has both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term cyborg is different from bionic, biorobot or android.

Cylinder implant

Dental An endosseous root-form press-fit implant, with parallel-sided walls.


Delayed auditory feedback


Demineralized bone matrix A composite of collagenous and noncollagenous proteins and bone growth factors remaining after the extraction of minerals from the bone by a chemical process.


Deep Brain Stimulation


drug coated balloon Drug-Coated Balloon angioplasty is similar to plain old balloon angioplasty procedurally, but there is the addition of an anti-proliferative medication coating the balloon, as well as an excipient to aid in drug transfer, which may help prevent restenosis.  


Dynamic Compression Plate LC-DCP: Limited Contact – Dynamic Compression Plate. The dynamic compression plate is used like other osteosynthesis plates. Only the drill hole is constructed differently. The geometry of the screw head and plate hole in the DCP is such that a congruent fit is achieved even if the screw is at an angle …

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Dynamic Condylar System or Dynamic Condylar Screw The DCS Screw is designed to provide strong and stable internal fixation of certain distal femoral and subtrochanteric fractures, with minimal soft tissue irritation.


Dynamic Condylar Sliding System


Degenerative Disc Disease (source: Axiomed LLC)


Pacemaker: A formal mode designation–atrial and ventricular pacing, atrial and ventricular sensing, dual response and rate-adaptive, used for dual chamber pacemakers.


A defibrillator is used to treat cardiac dysrhythmias. Specifically it helps for ventricular fibrillation (VF). A defibrillator delivers a dose of electric current to the heart. Manual external defibrillator Manual external defibrillators are used by healthcare professionals. They are used in conjunction with an electrocardiogram to diagnose the cardiac rhythm and then manually determine the …

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Premature opening of a primary surgical tissue closure.

Delayed loading

Refers to the time of applying force on an implant after initial placement. This term mostly is used in oral surgery/dental implantology. The prosthesis is brought in function after a certain healing period. The healing period may be very different, depending on some factors like general predisposition, diseases, tissue health, intensity of use, cooperation.

Dental implant

ISO definition: A device designed to be placed surgically within or on the mandibular or maxillary bone to provide restistance to displacement of a dental prosthesis (ISO 1942:2009). A biocompatible device placed within, or on, bone of the maxilla or mandible, to provide support for a prosthetic reconstruction.

Dental platform interface

Syn.: connection, abutment connection, connection interface External external hexagon (“hex”) external indentation Internal internal hexagon internal octagon internal cone internal cone with retentions internal cylindrical with retentions modified internal polygons click connection (discontinued)

Dental subperiosteal implant

Dental Implant designed to rest on the surface of bone, under the periosteum. It is customized, sometimes stabilized with screw(s). Complete subperiosteal implant: Used in the complete edentulous arch. Unilateral subperiosteal implant: Implant located on one side of the posterior mandible or maxilla. Circumferential subperiosteal implant: Implant that bypasses remaining teeth or implants. It is …

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Loss or removal of the surface oxide layer of a metal.


Device History Record


Dynamic Hip System (Screw) Dynamic hip screws are a femoral head-sparing orthopedic device used to treat femoral neck fractures. DHS Procedure is done for patients with either a Non-Displaced or Minimally-Displaced Intertrochanteric (between the greater & lesser trochanter) hip fracture.


The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion

Digital Light Processing

Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a set of chipsets based on optical micro-electro-mechanical technology that uses a digital micromirror device. It was originally developed in 1987 by Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments. DLP technology usually is used in some kind of front projectors. For implantology important is the 3D printing process with DLP. It can …

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Deutsche Industrie Norm German term: Voluntary standard, that unifies tangible and intangible matters. Also: DIN EN, DIN EN ISO, Deutsche Norm, DI-Norm. Deutsch: Freiwilliger Standard, in dem materielle und immaterielle Gegenstände vereinheitlicht sind.

DIN Standards Committee for Medicine (NAMed)

DIN-Normenausschuss Medizin (NAMed) The DIN Standards Committee for Medicine (NAMed) is responsible for national standardization and represents German standardization interests at European (CEN) and international (ISO) level in the following areas: Non-active medical devices, Transfusion, Infusion, Injection, Laboratory Medicine and Clinical Chemistry, Sterilization, Disinfection, Sterile Supply, Medical microbiology and immunology, Technical aids for the disabled, …

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double vision Lacking coordination of the two eyes results in two pictures. Can be after trauma, dislocation of the eyes or malfunction of muscles, or neuromuscular. Can be first sign of systemic disease. Can be temporarily e. g. after alcoholic intoxication.


Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty DMEK is a partial-thickness cornea transplant procedure that involves selective removal of the patient’s Descemet membrane and endothelium, followed by transplantation of donor corneal endothelium and Descemet membrane without additional stromal tissue from the donor. The graft tissue is merely 10-15 microns thick. (University of Iowa Health Care)


Degenerative or Primary Mitral Regurgitation


Dorsal Root Ganglion (Therapy)


Distal Radioulnar Joint


Dynamic Trochanteric Sliding System


Direct Vertebral Rotation

Early loading

Refers to the time of applying force on an implant after initial placement. This term mostly is used in oral surgery/dental implantology. The prosthesis is brought in function earlier than the conventional healing period. Early loading may be applied, if preconditions are good or optimally.


Extracorporal Life Support System


extracorporeal life support


extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or extracorporeal life support (ECLS), is used to support patients with insufficient gas exchange in the lungs. It works by removing the carbon dioxide and oxygenating red blood cells. Generally, it is used either post-cardiopulmonary bypass or in late stage treatment of a person with profound heart and/or …

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a human tissue). It can be either an anode (“-“) or a cathode (“+”).

Emergence profile

Dental The part of the axial contour a crown, that extends from the base of the sulcus past the free soft tissue margin. It is important for the esthetic outcome of an implant worn crown in the frontal area.


Enamel matrix derivative Sterile protein aggregate from enamel matrix, amelogenin, the precursor of enamel from developing teeth. The proteins are harvested from around developing pig embryo teeth, with special processing procedures.

Endodontic implant

Syn.: Endodontic pin, endodontic stabilizer. A pin placed into a dental root canal and extending beyond the apex, into the bone.

Envista Holdings Corp.

    Envista is a global family of three operating companies and more than 30 trusted dental brands. Envista separated from Danaher as an independent entity in 2019. Implant companies are: Alpha BioTEC Simplantology Implant Direct™ Nobel Biocare™


Embolic Protection System

Eposteal implant

Dental Device that receives its primary bone support by means of resting upon bone. see: Subperiosteal implant.


Of or relating to a horse or horses.


End-Stage Renal Disease


European Union Medical Devices Regulation in the official Journal of the European Union


CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Union. The CE marking is the manufacturer’s declaration that the product meets EU standards for health, safety, and environmental protection.


Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

External hexagon

Dental One kind of a connection interface of the platform of a dental two-piece implant extending coronally. It prevents rotation of attached components and is used when.

Failure rate

The percentage of failures in a study or clinical trial, of a procedure or a device (e. g. implant), which do not meet the success criteria or fall into the failure criteria, defined in the study protocol.


Progressive weakening of a structure by accumulating embrittlement and crack formation/propagation.

Fatigue failure

A structural failure caused by multiple loading episodes when all loads lie below the structure´s ultimate strength.


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services in the USA. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, …

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FDA approved requests are for items that are new or substantially different and need to demonstrate “safety and efficacy”.


FDA clearance requests are for medical devices that prove they are “substantially equivalent” to the predicate devices already on the market.


Freeze-dried bone allograft Bone harvested from donor cadavers, washed, immersed in ethanol, frozen in nitrogen, freeze-dried and ground to similar particles ranging from 250 to 750μm. It acts primarily through an osteoconductive process, as inductive proteins, often found in only minute quantities, are only released after the resorption of the mineral.


free from infection

Finite element analysis

A numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics. Software technique used to study stresses and strains on mechanical parts or components. Virtual prototyping software, often a component of CAD software programs, automatically generates the simulated mechanical loads for FEA The finite element method formulation of the problem results in a system of …

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Fixed prosthesis

Dental A restoration that is not removable by the patient. The restoration may be partial arch (FPD: Fixed partial denture), or complete arch (FCD: Fixed complete denture.

Fixed removable

Dental Prosthesis fixed to an implant or implants, only removable by the dentists.


Fluoroplastics stands for a group of plastics where the molecules contain carbon and fluorine. Fluoroplastics tend to have special properties:- Very high working temperatures. Non-stick characteristics. Very high resistance to chemical and solvents. Very high electrical resistance. The more common members of the fluoroplastics family, with which we work, are:- PTFE (PolyTetraFluoroEthylene) PTFE is the …

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Functional Mitral Regurgitation

Fragen an den Chirurg zu einer Brustvergrößerung

english      español      français Welche Fragen sollten Sie Ihrem Chirurgen zu einer Brustvergrößerung stellen? Diese Liste soll Ihnen helfen, keine Fragen zu vergessen, die Sie im Zusammenhang mit einer geplanten Brustvergrößerung haben. Vielleicht treffen nicht alle Fragen zu oder Sie haben zusätzliche Fragen. 1. Welche Risiken und Komplikationen sind mit Brustimplantaten verbunden? …

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Friction fit

State of retention of an implant at the time of insertion that results from slight compression of the osteotomy walls by the implant body. Components retained to an implant by friction.

Fused Deposition Modeling

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing process that uses production-grade thermoplastic material to produce prototypes and production parts. Completed parts are robust, paintable and can be sealed to be impervious to fluids. During the build process, melted plastic is deposited layer by layer to create a two-dimensional cross section of the model. This …

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Guided bone regeneration Bone regenerative technique that uses physical means (e. g. membranes) to seal off an anatomic site where bone is to be regenerated. The goal is to direct bone formation and prevent other tissues (e. g. connective tissue) from interfering with osteogenesis.  


Gesellschaft bürgerlichen Rechts


Material or tissue used for implantation or transplantation.

Grit blasting

Delivery to an implant surface of high velocity stream of abrasive particles propelled by compressed air, designed to increase surface area.

Growth factor

Any highly specific protein that stimulates the division and differentiation of particular types of cells.


The method of hot isostatic postcompaction is used today as a standard for improving characteristics relevant to fracture mechanics in ceramic implants. HIPing reduces porosity, increases density and purity, and thus leads to a relevant increase in long-term life expectancy and a decrease in the tendency to sub-critical crack growth. (Wolfhart Rieger, Stefan Köbel, Wolfram …

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Healing by first intention

Syn.: Healing by primary intention, primary closure. Healing of a wound in which the edges are closely re-approximated. Union or restoration of continuity occurs directly with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation.

Heart Valve

Mechanical heart valves and tissue heart valves are used as implants. anatomy The heart has two chambers, each having two valves. The two atrioventricular valves (AV) are called mitral valve (bicuspid valve) and tricuspid valve. The two semilunar valves are called aortic valve and pulmonary valve. types There are two basic types of valves: Mechanical …

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A mass of blood (usually clotted) confined to a space and caused by a break in a blood vessel.


Thrombocytes stop bleeding. They aggregate at the contact with collagen and the proteins from the implant surface and close the ruptured vessels. Thrombocytes release messengers, to support crosslinking (thromboxan), to fibroblast building with PDGF(platelet derived growth factor). Fibrin monomers crosslink. Adsorption of an implant materials iones and blood proteines (albumines, fibrinogen, fibronektin).


A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides. Hernias come in some types. Most commonly they involve the abdomen, specifically the groin.


xenogenous Tissue grafts, when donor and recipient belong to different species. A heterologous transplant means ‘between species’ or ‘from one species to another’.


The quantitative study of the microscopic organization and structure of a tissue (e. g. bone), especially by computer-assisted analysis of images acquired from a microscope.

Hollow basket implant

A dental root-form implant with an internal channel penetrating the implant body from/at its apical aspect.

Host response

The local or systemic response of the host organism to an implanted material or device.

Hounsfield Unit

HU A unit of y-ray attenuation used for CT-scans as a measurement of bone density. Each pixel is assigned a value on a scale on which air is -1000, water 0, and compact bone +1000. In dentistry exists a proposal to use bone density as a determinant for clinical success (Misch CE, Contemporary Implant Dentistry, …

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How to choose a surgeon

Choosing a Surgeon you should ask the following questions. 1. How many implantation procedures of the planned kind does he/she perform per year? 2. How many years has he/she performed implantation procedures? 3. Is he/she board certified for that surgical procedure, and if so, with which board? 4. What is the most common complication he/she …

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Human pluripotent stem cells


see: Hounsfield Units

Hybrid implant

Dental An endosseous, root-form implant, with different surface textures at different levels.


also Hydroxylapatite, HA, CaHA, Apatite CaOH   physical Naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite. Pure hydroxylapatite (HA) powder is white. Naturally occurring apatites can, however, also have brown, yellow, or green colorations. chemical Ca5(PO4)3(OH) occurrence Carbonated calcium-deficient HA is the main mineral of which dental enamel and dentin are composed. HA crystals are also found …

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Hygiene cap

Dental Component inserted over a prosthetic abutment. Its function is to prevent debris and calculus from invading the internal portion of the abutment between prosthetic appointments.


= interbody (in spine)


Interbody Fusion Device (in spine)


Implantable cardial defibrillator also for Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Impulse control disorder International Classification of Diseases International List of Causes of Death  


Implantable Loop Recorder   The ILR monitors the electrical activity of the heart.

Immediate nonfunctional loading

Dental A clinical protocol for the placement of dental implants in a partially edentulous arch, with a fixed or removable restoration not in occlusal contact with the opposing dentition, at the same clinical visit.

Immediate provisionalization

Dental A clinical protocol for the placement of an interim prosthesis with or without occlusal contact with the opposing dentition, at the same clinical visit of dental implant placement.

implantable insulin pump

An implanted insulin pump is a pump which remains inside the body at all times. An implanted insulin pump is able to deliver insulin into the peritoneal cavity which has a rich supply of blood vessels and can therefore absorb insulin very efficiently. Users of implanted insulin pumps have reported an improved sense of well …

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In vitro

Outside of the living organism or natural system. Usually refers to artificial experimental systems such as cultures or cell-free extras.

In vivo

Within the living organism or natural system.

Initial stability

The degree of tightness of an implant immediately after placement in the prepared osteotomy. An implant is considered to have initial stability if it is clinically immobile at time of placement.

Internal hexagon

Dental – A hexagonal connection interface of the platform of a dental implant within its coronal aspect. It prevents rotation of attached components.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

The IEC is a global, not-for-profit membership organization, whose work underpins quality infrastructure and international trade in electrical and electronic goods. Our work facilitates technical innovation, affordable infrastructure development, efficient and sustainable energy access, smart urbanization and transportation systems, climate change mitigation, and increases the safety of people and the environment. The IEC brings together …

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Intraocular Lens   IOL for upcoming cataract surgery have three choices. Traditional  IOL This type of lens offers clear vision at one distance only. It is also known as a standard monofocal lens. Toric IOL This IOL corrects astigmatism, or an irregularly shaped cornea. Trifocal, Multifocal and Accommodating IOLs These IOLs assist with near, far …

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Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)

International Organization of Standardization ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be …

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