|chemical element||Ti, 22Ti|
|physical||Metal, high strength-to-weight-ratio.|
|chemical||Oxidizes in air. Reacts with water and forms a passive oxide coating that protects the metal from further oxidation.|
|occurrence||Ninth-most element in earth crust.|
|About 50 grades of titanium and his alloys known, 35 grades ASTM, commercially used are Grades 1 through 4. It comes with additional aluminum, vanadium, mangan, molybdenum, palladium, copper, zirconium dioxide, iron and tin.
Dental implants are often made of titanium grade 4 or 5 (also Ti6Al4V, Ti-6Al-4V or Ti 6-4). It contains beside titanium 6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium, 0,25 % (maximum) iron and 0,2 % (maximum) oxygen. Titanium Grade 4 is stronger than pure titanium and has a 60% less thermal diffusivity. The smaller the implant, the more grade 5 is preferred.
|properties||Non-toxic, lightweight, corrosion resistant, biocompatible, long-lasting, non-ferromagnetic, strong.|
|applications||Dental implants, orthopedic implants, general surgery implants (plates, screws), neurosurgery, hearing aids, spinal fusion cages, pacemakers, replacements of many bones.|
|biocompatibility||So far the most biocompatible metal. It works with a protective oxide film.|
|special||Different methods to increase the surface are used to improve the stability within bone.
Coating is possible. e.g. with HA.
|adverse effects||No allergic reaction known. Some intolerances have been reported.
Alternatives exist in ceramic or coated implants.