Titanium and zirconium oxide implants in comparison (dental)

Over the past 5 decades, dental implantology has fundamentally changed the reconstructive concepts in dentistry. The advantages of a fixed, aesthetically demanding dental prosthesis far outweighed the risks of implanting foreign material into the jawbone, which were considered to be low. Despite the undisputed success of titanium implantology with regard to the long-term functionality of implants, the results of preclinical and clinical studies on material-related effects on the organism have made their evaluation more controversial.
The author discusses the following questions:
  • Passivation through titanium oxide layer
  • Marginal bone loss
  • Pros and cons of titanium
  • Inflammation through macrophage activation
  • Zirconium oxide implants in clinical performance
  • Bacteria and material particles as trigger for periimplantitis
  • aMMP-8 and calprotectin as early markers of inflammation
  • Tissue studies on zirconium oxide implants

Further systemic exposure to orally introduced metals, but also to other dental materials, can be a permanent inflammatory stimulus for the immune system. Even the reduction of oral metals and their negative effects through the considered use of modern high-performance ceramics can relieve the immune system. This also includes the preferred use of zirconium dioxide as an implant material and as a material in prosthetic rehabilitation.

In preclinical and clinical studies, zirconium oxide implants are characterized by good osseointegration, good material stability, good immunological and toxicological compatibility, good hard and soft tissue stability and optimum esthetics. Reversible screw-retained two-part implant systems allow an expansion of the prosthetic indication areas beyond single-tooth and bridge replacement and enable hybrid prosthetic replacement with telescopes and locators as connecting elements. For the evaluation of long-term success and associated biological complications beyond 10 years, corresponding scientific studies for zirconium oxide implants are still lacking.

Author(s) Source
Jacobi-Gresser E Dentale Implantologie zund Parodontologie, 24.07.2020 (german original)
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