Controlled release of soy isoflavones from multifunctional 3D printed bone tissue engineering scaffolds

Recent challenges in post-surgical bone tumor management have elucidated the need for a multifunctional scaffold, which can be used for residual tumor-cell suppression, defect repair, and simultaneous bone regeneration. In this perspective, 3D printing allows to create a wide variety of patient-specific implant with complex porous architecture and compatible mechanical strength to that of cancellous bone. Here, a multifunctional bone graft substitute is designed by incorporating the three primary soy isoflavones: genistein, daidzein, and glycitein onto a 3D printed (3DP) tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds with designed pores, endowing them with in vitro chemopreventive, bone-cell proliferating and immune-modulatory potential.

Statement of Significance

Designed multimodal porosity of 3D printed TCP scaffold allows a controlled and sustained release of soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and glycitein in both physiological and acidic pH. Presence of genistein shows 90% reduction in vitro bone cancer cell viability and proliferation. Meanwhile, controlled release of genistein, daidzein, and glycitein from 3DP TCP scaffolds demonstrate improved osteoblast cell proliferation, viability, and differentiation in static and dynamic flow-perfusion bioreactor. Furthermore, H&E staining at 24 h post-surgical specimens from rat distal femur model shows neutrophil recruitment at the surgery site is significantly decreased, suggesting the anti-inflammatory property of soy isoflavones. This work provides deeper understanding on the design of a multifunctional 3D printed patient-specific scaffold with enhanced in vitro chemopreventive, osteogenic and in vivo anti-inflammatory ability.

Sarkar N, Bose S

Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 114, 15 September 2020, Pages 407-420,

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