|What … for? (Indications for implants)||patient´s pacemaker checklist|
| Implants for the heart help with|
Different distinction criteria:
1. Structural Heart Diseases
1.1 Partial Heart Substitutes (VHD=Valvular Heart Disease)
Patients who cannot tolerate surgery for aortic valve replacement may be candidates for a less invasive approach called TAVI or TAVR (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement).
Summary of recommendations for prosthetic valve choice (Nishimura)
A bioprosthesis is recommended in patients of any age for whom anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated, cannot be managed appropriately, or is not desired.
A mechanical prosthesis is reasonable for AVR or MVR in patients <60 y of age who do not have a contraindication to anticoagulation.
A bioprosthesis is reasonable in patients >70 y of age. Either a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve is reasonable in patients between 60 y and 70 y of age.
1.2 Hybrid Heart Assistive Devices
1.3 Total Artificial Heart
Replacement of the aortic valve by a pulmonary autograft (the Ross procedure), may be considered in young patients when VKA anticoagulation is contraindicated or undesirable (Nishimura).
2. Abnormal heart rhythms (artificial pacemaker)
|Generally a multidisciplinary approach by a specialized team is recommendable.|
|USA: American Heart Association (USA/AHA):|
– 480.000 PCI procedures (2014, AHA)
– 3.244 Heart transplants (2014, AHA)
– 106.000 Valve replacements (2006)
In the USA in 2019, coronary events are expected to occur in about 1,055,000 individuals, including 720,000 new and 335,000 recurrent coronary events.
Pacemakers worldwide (2009), 1.14 Mio (2014, statista), USA 351.000 (2014, AHA)
LVADs worldwide about 4,000 implanted (total until 2000)
1 of every 2.9 deaths in the United States is related to heart diseases (AHA, 2011)
From 2006 to 2016, the US death rate from CVD decreased by 18.6% and from coronary heart disease by 31.8%.
2019: 100,446 surgeries (without pacemaker, more)
|Structural therapies: very different acc. to type and scope of the surgery.|
Pacemaker: hospital stay several hours until days.
|Contraindications||behavioral||Missing, low compliance|
|medical||Comorbidities precluding the expected benefit, Frailty Mortality Scores . eg Euroscore (STS risk estimate) Procedure specific impediments|
Low life expectancy
|Risks||during surgery||Impracticability, problems with general anesthesia, death|
|short term||No benefit|
|long term||No benefit|
|restrictions||Accompanying medical treatment, Control regiment.|
Artificial pacemaker: Avoid intense magnetic fields, contact sports, electric interference may occur (e.g. at magnetic resonance imaging MRI, radiofrequencies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS, therapeutic radiation, diathermy, electric tools)
|Failures||n/a, many varieties|
|Material||Artificial heart||Pump||titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy|
|Structural implants (valves, widener, opener…..)|
|autologous||Pulmonal valve||e.g. “Ross” operation|
|xenogenous||Bovine pericardium||Sorin pericardial valves|
Tissue heart valves
|alloplastic||Stents after coronary, peripheral angioplasty (balloon angioplasty) leaving a stent||Stainless steel, gold, cobalt-chromium, tantalum|
|Nitinol (55%Ni, 45%Ti)|
|Nitinol-composite with platinum core|
|Implantable pacing systemes (pacemaker, defibrillator, cardioverter, CRT Cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT-D, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)|
|alloplastic||Generator (resistors, diodes, capacitors, semiconductors)||wired||titanium|
|Statistics||Aortic valve operations: 80% of patients had a predicted risk of mortality (PROM) of <4% and actual mortality rate of 1.4%, the remaining 20% had a higher risk (2002 – 2010).|
|Literature||– Basic||2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease (find more guidelines, recommendations on page e63)|
Pocket Guides of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society
The German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY): in-Hospital outcome
AHA 2019 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics
|– Problems||Pacemaker problems|
Prosthetic heart valves problems
|– Science/Future||Artificial Heart Pump|
|Medical Societies||see here||Use the information button or the doctor-finder in the medical societies section. If available you´ll find information in your language and according to the region you live.|
|Criticism||Heart stents still overused (NYT, 2013)|
|Selected Patient Information||Angioplasty Patient Center|
Artificial Pacemaker (1) – arrhythmia
Artificial Pacemaker (2) – what is a pacemaker
Artificial Pacemaker (3) – electromagnetic interference
Carotid Artery Stent (Medline)
Heart Failure Matters (multilingual)
Heart Valve Disease (University of Michigan)
Implantation eines ICD- oder CRT-Systems (german)
Risks of having a stent (NIH)
Sudden cardiac death (AHA)
|Register for Patients||International pacemaker patient identification cards carry information such as patient data (among others, symptom primary, ECG, aetiology), pacemaker center (doctor, hospital), IPG (rate, mode, date of implantation, manufacturer, type) and lead type.|
|If your implant is not covered:|
The Implant-Register offers registration of implants online and you can download a printable version for your personal use.
|Disclaimer: The information and links and whatsoever shown on this page are compiled with care. However, Implant-Register can´t take any responsibility for the information given, nor their content, nor their up-to-date nature, particularly in interlinked pages. You may help us with your contribution, granting us the decision to publish or not. Be careful with conclusions for yourself, in doubt double-check and consider medical solutions are individual and have to be found with an educated medical person.|