Current Standard in Shoulder Replacement (2003)

Main indications for shoulder replacement are osteoarthritic joint changes due to rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease or complex proximal humerus fractures. In general shoulder endoprostheses are differentiated into constraint and non-constrained implants.
Today, mostly non-constrained implants are used which are hemi-endoprostheses in most of the cases. With modern implants good to excellent results can be obtained in patients with humeral head necrosis and degenerative joint disease, but not so in the case of trauma patients. Future developments need to focus on cementing technique especially at the glenoid side, techniques to compensate for massive rotator cuff tears, support for
glenoid defects and for fracture cases. Most important is that shoulder replacement is in fact soft tissue surgery more than anything else.
Author(s)Source
Heisel JDtsch Arztebl 2003; 100: A 2366–2377 [Heft 37] (german original)
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