Glossary

S value

A three-dimensional roughness parameter calculated from topographical images. Sa: The arithmetic average of the absolute value of all points of the profile, it is a height descriptive parameter. Scx: A space descriptive parameter. Sdr: The developed surface area ratio.

Sacral Neuromodulation

Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) or sacral nerve stimulation or a bladder pacemaker is a treatment used to help patients with bladder control problems. It is also known as Interstim therapy. SNM uses mild electrical pulses to stimulate the sacral nerve located near the tailbone, which controls the bladder and other muscles that manage urinary function. A …

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Saline

A solution of sodium chloride (salt) and water.

Saucerization

The excavation of tissue to form a shallow shelving depression, usually performed to facilitate drainage from infected areas of bone. The shallow saucer-like depression on the upper surface of a vertebra that has suffered a compression fracture. Dental: Pericervical depression around an dental implants neck.

Scaffold

A 3D biocompatible construct that serves as a framework which provides a structure on which tissue is growing. It may be replaced by naturel tissue.

SCS

Spinal Chord Stimulator Spinal Chord Stimulation

SD

see: Standard Deviation.

Seroma

Localized collection of serum, the watery portion of blood. Seroma

Shear stress

Stress caused by a load (two forces applied toward one another but not in the same straight line) that tends to slide one portion of object ove another.

Silicon Nitride

Beta-SiAlON type ceramic What are SiAION Ceramics? SiAlONs are ceramic alloys based on the elements silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) and were developed in the 1970s to solve the problem of silicon nitride (Si3N4) being difficult to fabricate. As alloys of Si3N4, SiAlONs exist in three basic forms. Each form is …

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Silicone

also: Polysiloxanes Chemistry: Polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, frequently combined with carbon and/or hydrogen. In implants it is used for glaucoma drain, artificial iris, cochlear prosthesis, ear tubes, breast implants, hernia mesh and intrauterine devices …

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silk biopolymer

Distinguish natural and synthetic silk polymers. Synthetic: Innovative biofibers made from a silk protein of the green lacewing are being developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP in conjunction with the company AMSilk GmbH. Researchers are working on producing the protein in large quantities by using biotechnology. The aim is to use …

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Sintered surface

An implant surface produced when spherical powders of metallic or ceramic materials become a coherent mass with the core of the implant body. Porous surfaces are characterized by pore size, pore shape, pore volume, and pore depth.

Sintering

Heating a powder below the melting point of any component so as to permit agglomeration and welding of particles by diffusion alone, with or without applied pressure.

Sinusitis

Inflammation of the sinus maxillaris. Signs include sensitivity of teeth to percussion, fever, and facial swelling. Symptoms may include nasal congestion, post nasal discharge, facial pain, headache, rhinorrhea, halitosis, popping of ears, and muffled hearing. It may occur with oral surgery combined with dental implants or augmentation (sinus elevation, sinuslift).

Sirolimus

Sirolimus (aka “rapamycin”), is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It is immunsuppresiv. It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2) through mTOR inhibition. It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

SLA

Sandblasted, Large-Grid, Acid-Etched A method for treating titanium implant surfaces, to magnify the surface of the implant.

SLA-SH®

Sandblasted, Large-Grid, Acid-Etched–SuperHydrophilicity-Activated A method to magnify titanium implant surfaces and to improve hydrophilicity (used by Cowellmedi Co., Ltd.)

soft tissue

Soft tissue connects, supports or surrounds other structures of the body. Soft tissue includes connective tissue as there are tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat and synovial membranes and as well not connective tissue as muscles, nerves and blood vessels.

Stage-one surgery

Dental Syn.: First-stage surgery. A surgical procedure that consists of placing an endosseous implant in the bone and suturing of the soft tissue over the implant, thereby submerging the implant under the soft tissue for healing.

Stainless Steel

also: inox steel, inox. A steel alloy with a minimum of 10,5% chromium content by mass. There are more than 150 grades of stainless steel, some systems of grading steel. It is used when properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required. It forms an inert film of chromium oxide on its surface. This layer …

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Standard deviation

Acro.: SD Statistical term. A measure of the variability, or dispersion of a distribution of scores. The more scores cluster around the mean, the smaller the standard deviation.

stapedoplasty

The stapedoplasty is a surgery of the middle ear in order to improve hearing. It consists of removing the stirrup, which is static and unable to transmit sonic vibrations, replacing it with a microscopic metallic prosthesis. Stapedoplasty is effective in the event that there are signs of otosclerosis. In this disease, the bone tissue is …

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Stem cell

Undifferentiated cell of embryogenic or adult origin that can undergo unlimited division and give rise to one or several different cell types.

stent

A stent is a tiny tube. It is inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open. It is left there permanently or absorbs. Types: by anatomy bilar stent coronary stent esophageal stent nasal stent (not an implant, to be placed by oneself) prostatic stent vascular stent ureteral stent …

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Stereolithography

Syn.: Three dimensional imaging, three-dimensional modeling. Method of creating a three-dimensional model by using lasers driven by CAD software, from information derived from CT-scan. It is used for surgical planning and the generation of placing tools for implantation.

Stripping

Dental The damage (i. e., distortion or obliteration) of the internal threads of a root-form dental implant. These are important to fix the abutment.

Success criteria

Conditions established by a study protocol for the evaluation of a procedure as a success.

Success rate

The percentage of success of a procedure or device in a study or clinical trial according to success criteria defined by the study protocol.

SUI

stress urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine. Find more at WebMD, NHS UK

Surface characteristics

The topography of an implant surface is defined in terms of form, waviness and roughness. Roughness describes the smallest irregularities in the surface, while form relates to the largest structure or profile. Waviness and roughness are often presented together under the term texture.

Surface roughness

Qualitative and quantitative features of an implant surface determined two-dimensionally by contact stylus profilometry (see: R value) or three-dimensionally by confocal laser scanner.

Surgical guide

Tool to transfer 3D-planning of implants into the surgical procedure. There exists several types of surgical guides, mor or less precisely. For instance guides for pilote drilling give a rough direction. Hull-in-hull-systems allow more precisely drilling with hulls, fitting to different drill diameters. Depth control is possible.

Survival rate

The percentage of survivals in a study or clinical trial in placing implants, defined as implants that are functioning according to predetermined criteria.

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