Probability that a test statistic will assume a value as extreme as or more extreme than that seen under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.


A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the natural pacemaker of the heart) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to influence the electrical conduction system of an organ. Traditionally is meant the organ heart, but there are more. The heart´s natural pacemaker in the sinoatrial …

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Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) is a family of semi-crystalline thermoplastics. PAEK includes PEK, PEEK, PEKK, PEEKK, PEKEKK. They have high-temperature stability and high mechanical strength. Due to its excellent resistance to hydrolysis it is used in medical devices because it does not break down when sterilized. It is used in spinal and hip implants. PEKEKK is used to …

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The ability to feel something und der the skin with the hand, e. g. an implant.


Parylene is the trade name for a variety of chemical vapor deposited poly(p-xylylene) polymers used as moisture and dielectric barriers. Parylene coatings are moisture and chemical barriers for medical device components. It peovides a pinhole-free barrier to protect against body fluid as well as moisture, chemicals and common gases. It may be used for coronary …

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A process by which metals (e.g. titanium) and alloys are made more resistant to corrosion through treatment to produce a thin and stable oxide layer on the external surfaces.

Passive fit

Fit that does not induce strain between two or more implants.


Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell


printed circuit boards A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electrical or electronic components using conductive tracks. Implants may contain PCBs if electronic tasks are to be performed (example: pacemakers, transmitter implants).


Posterior Cervical Fusion The PCF technique joins the bones in the back of the cervical spine together.


Percutaneous coronary intervention (aka arthroplasty) Percutaneous coronary intervention is a procedure used to open blocked coronary arteries (caused by coronary artery disease). It restores blood flow to the heart muscle without open-heart surgery. Angioplasty can be done in an emergency setting such as an acute heart attack or in an elective setting when heart disease …

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Posterior Cruciate Ligament


patent (persistent) ductus arteriosus This is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening, called the ductus arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby’s circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, however, it’s called a patent ductus arteriosus. If it´s …

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poly-DL–lactide acid Polylactide (Poly(lactic acid), PLA) is polymer obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of lactide (cyclic dimer of lactic acid) as monomer. Since lactide has 3 optical isomer as L-lactide, D-lactide, and DL-lactide, the polymers obtained from L-lactide, D-lactide, and DL-lactide are abbreviated to PLLA, PDLA, and PDLLA, respectively. The chemical properties of L-lactide and …

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Polyetherketoneetherketoneketone belongs to PAEK


poly ethyl methacrylate


patent foramen ovale The blood in a child in the womb is bypassed by a connection between the two atria of the heart. This connection is called the foramen ovale. After birth, the child starts to breathe independently and the connection between the atria closes. In as many as 1 out of 4 people the …

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75% glycolide, 25% -caprolactone (source: Riverpoint Medical)


phakic intra ocular lenses


Polylactic acid.

Platelet-rich plasma

Autologous product derived from whole blood through the process of gradient density centrifugation. Its intended purpose lies in its ability to incorporate high concentrations of growth factors and fibrin into a graft mixture.


Polylactide co-glycolide


Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion


poly-l–lactide acid Polylactide (Poly(lactic acid), PLA) is a polymer obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of lactide (cyclic dimer of lactic acid) as monomer. PLLA polymer is mainly applied for absorbable bone fixture and utilized for stent and adhesion barrier. When the stereo complex PLA (scPLA) is formed with PLLA and PDLA, scPLA has higher melting …

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Private Label Manufacturer


Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)


posterior occipital cervical thoracic

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

also: PMMA, brand names: Plexiglass, Acrylite, Lucite, Perspex and many others. Chemistry: Poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate). It is often technically classified as a type of glass hence its occasional historic designation as acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is an economical alternative to polycarbonate (PC) when tensile strength, flexural strength, transparency, …

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Polyurethane (PUR / PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate) links. Fully reacted polyurethane polymer is chemically inert. Carcinogenity is not known. More health information is available – USA: Polyurethane Manufacturers Association (PMA), Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) – Europe: ISOPA (European Diisocyanate and Polyol Producers Association) Examples for …

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Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic. Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula (C2H4)n. PE is usually a mixture of similar polymers of ethylene with various values of n.                   Application: Implantable products, sutures, …

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Polyethylene Terephtalate

The most common thermoplastic polymer. Other names: Dacron (a Dupont Brand), Terylene (Britain), Lavsan (Russia). Abbreviations: PET, PETE, PETP, PET-P. Chemical: Poly(ethyl benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) The majority is used as synthetic fibers, e.g. bottles. For implantation it is used in vascular and heart applications, as nonresorbable suture material, heart valves.

Polyglycolic acid

A polymer of glycolic acid used for absorbable sutures and membranes.


Polyimides (PIs) occupy a particular place in commercial plastics because of their ability to tolerate and function in extremely high temperatures. They are also well known for other properties including insulating capability, chemical resistance, and excellent mechanical attributes. From a medical perspective and aside from tubing, polyimides present attractive options for encapsulation of implantable devices …

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Polylactid acid

A polymer of lactic acid used for absorbable sutures or membranes.


Polypropylene (PP, also polypropene), is made via chain-growth polymerization from the monomer propylene. Polypropylene belongs to the group of polyolefins. Its properties are similar to polyethylene, but harder and more heat resistant. It has a high chemical resistance. Polypropylene is the second-most widely produced commodity plastic after polyethylene. In medicine it is used mostly in …

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A family of themoplastic polymers, like the reaction of a diphenol and bis(4-chlorophenyl)sulfone, forming a polyether by elimination of sodium chloride: n HOC6H4OH + n (ClC6H4)2SO2 + n Na2CO3 → [OC6H4OC6H4SO2C6H4]n + 2n NaCl + n H2O + n CO2. Chemistry: Polysulfone allows easy manufacturing of membranes, with reproducible properties and controllable size of pores down …

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also: PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. The best known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon. Chemistry: poly(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethylene), . Application: Coating of catheters, vascular grafts, prostheses. see: ePTFE      


also: Polyurethan, PUR, PU chemistry:  Application: Artificial hearts, pacemakers, implantable defibrillators.




pelvic organ prolaps Pelvic organ prolapse is when one or more of the organs in the pelvis slip down from their normal position and bulge into the vagina. Find more here: NHS UK, healthtopquestions, Wikipedia (german)


Of or pertaining to the pig.


Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis

posterior stabilized

A posterior stabilized knee implant replaces the PCL with a cam and post design of the knee replacement that ensures femoral rollback. The advocates of the PS knee design claim more predictable knee ligament balancing and more predictable flexion. The opposition of PS knee designs claim the cam and post design causes additional polyethylene wear, …

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Energy transferred to a screw when a torque is applied during tightening.

Press fit

Retention of a root-form implant from close proximity of the bone. Retention of certain components into an implant.

Progenitor cell

An undifferentiated cell that possesses the ability to transform into one or more types of cells.




Phospholipid reduction treatment (PRT) for mitigated calcium absorption The presence of phospholipids in the pericardial tissue play a key role in the calcification process of bioprostheses as their phosphate heads are potential binding sites for circulating calcium ions. The PRT process removes phospholipids using Octanediol, a long chain alcohol that possesses a lipid-soluble tail to …

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Pterygoid implant

Dental A root-form implant that has its origin in the region of the former second or third maxillary molar and its end point encroaches in the scaphoid fossa of the sphenoid bone. The implant follows an intrasinusal trajectory in a dorsal and mesio-cranial direction, perforating the posterior sinusal wall and the pterygoid plates.


Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride. Compared to other fluoropolymers, like polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), PVDF has a low density (1.78 g/cm3). It is denser than nylon. In medical use, PVDF is used as an artificial membrane (usually with 0.22 or 0.45-micrometre pore sizes), on …

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