The hammer-shaped bony protrusions on the tibia (malleolus medialis) and fibula (malleolus lateralis), which are part of the upper ankle joint as a malleolus fork, are called malleolus.


Dynamic Compression Plate LC-DCP: Limited Contact – Dynamic Compression Plate. The dynamic compression plate is used like other osteosynthesis plates. Only the drill hole is constructed differently. The geometry of the screw head and plate hole in the DCP is such that a congruent fit is achieved even if the screw is at an angle …

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Locking Compression Plate Locking Compression Plate (LCP) Implants are taken for temporary fixation, correction or stabilization of bones in various anatomical regions. The plates come in different sizes and shapes according to the anatomy and the intended purpose. Screws are locked in the plate, and the physiological load (F) is transferred from the bone to …

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Universal Spine System


relating to the maxilla (upper jawbone) and the face. Maxillofacial surgery is a specialization of medicine and/or dentistry that focuses on problems around the mouth, jaw, midface and neck. Anatomical limits and skills differ country-to-country. In some countries doctors attend medical school, dental school and than an additional residency. In other countries they attend either …

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Dynamic Condylar Sliding System


Dynamic Trochanteric Sliding System


Neurovascular Anticipating Distraction Interference Arthrodesis Bridging the sacroiliac joint from posterior to eliminate neurovascular risks, which could happen with laterally-based techniques. (Ilion Medical)


Dynamic Condylar System or Dynamic Condylar Screw The DCS Screw is designed to provide strong and stable internal fixation of certain distal femoral and subtrochanteric fractures, with minimal soft tissue irritation.


 Locking Trochanter Stabilizing Plate


Dynamic Hip System (Screw) Dynamic hip screws are a femoral head-sparing orthopedic device used to treat femoral neck fractures. DHS Procedure is done for patients with either a Non-Displaced or Minimally-Displaced Intertrochanteric (between the greater & lesser trochanter) hip fracture.


eXtreme lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion The XLIF (eXtreme Lateral Interbody Fusion) is an approach to spinal fusion in which the surgeon accesses the intervertebral disc space and fuses the lumbar spine (low back) using a surgical approach from the side (lateral) rather than from the front (anterior) or the back (posterior). The XLIF is one …

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Arthrodesis (also artificial ankylosis or syndesis), is the artificial induction of joint ossification between two bones by surgery. This is done to relieve intractable pain in a joint which cannot be managed otherwise. It is most commonly performed on joints in the spine, hand, ankle, and foot.




The excavation of tissue to form a shallow shelving depression, usually performed to facilitate drainage from infected areas of bone. The shallow saucer-like depression on the upper surface of a vertebra that has suffered a compression fracture. Dental: Pericervical depression around an dental implants neck.

Resonance Frequency Analysis

Technique for clinical measurement of implant stability/mobility in bone. The measurement is registered from a transducer attached to the implant. The device records the resonance frequency arising from the implant-bone interface (change in amplitude over induced frequency band) Acro.: RFA


Energy transferred to a screw when a torque is applied during tightening.


An osteoblast that has become embedded within the bone matrix, occupying a flat oval cavity (bone lacuna). Cells found in bone lacunae send, through canaliculi, slender cytoplasmic processes that make contact with processes of other osteocytes.


Large multinucleated cell, arising from mononuclear precursor of the hematopoietic lineage, that functions in the breakdown and resorption of osseous tissue.


A fully differentiated cell that originates in the embryonic mesenchyme and, during the early development of the skeleton, functions in the formation of bone tissue. Osteoblasts synthesize the collagen and glycoproteins that form the bone matrix, and also produce inorganic salts. With growth, they develop into osteocytes.

Hounsfield Unit

HU A unit of y-ray attenuation used for CT-scans as a measurement of bone density. Each pixel is assigned a value on a scale on which air is -1000, water 0, and compact bone +1000. In dentistry exists a proposal to use bone density as a determinant for clinical success (Misch CE, Contemporary Implant Dentistry, …

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Friction fit

State of retention of an implant at the time of insertion that results from slight compression of the osteotomy walls by the implant body. Components retained to an implant by friction.

Early loading

Refers to the time of applying force on an implant after initial placement. This term mostly is used in oral surgery/dental implantology. The prosthesis is brought in function earlier than the conventional healing period. Early loading may be applied, if preconditions are good or optimally.


Freeze-dried bone allograft Bone harvested from donor cadavers, washed, immersed in ethanol, frozen in nitrogen, freeze-dried and ground to similar particles ranging from 250 to 750μm. It acts primarily through an osteoconductive process, as inductive proteins, often found in only minute quantities, are only released after the resorption of the mineral.


Surgical technique in which only the bony cortex is surgically cut.

Chin graft

A bone harvested from the facial aspect of the symphyseal area of the mandible, between the mental foramina, apical to roots of teeth.

Calvarial graft

Bone graft harvested from the superior portion of the cranium. It is most frequently taken from the parietal region, generally on the right side (nondominant hemisphere) behind the coronal suture and approximately 3 cm lateral to the sagittal suture.


The tissue that forms between and around fractured bone segments to maintain structural integrity and facilitate bone regeneration.

Calcium Sulfate

Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. One particular hydrate is better known as plaster of Paris, and another occurs naturally as the mineral gypsum. All forms are white solids that are poorly soluble in water. Calcium sulfate causes permanent hardness in water. Mixed with polymers, …

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Bone to implant contact Direct contact of bone with an implant surface at the light microscope level.

Bone marrow

Soft spongy tissue found in the center of bone that contains fat and/or hematopoietic tissues.

Bone expansion

Surgical widening of bone to augment its volume. In oral implantology also: Ridge expansion (or splitting) to widen the residual ridge.


Any surgical procedure in which bone is transected or cut.


Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation A technique for the treatment of large isolated cartilage defects. A small sample of cartilage is harvested from a non-weight-bearing part of the joint during arthroscopy. In a laboratory the chondrocytes are dissolved away of the tissue composite and multiplied in culture dishes. After a cultivation period of 3 to 4 weeks …

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AMIC® (Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis) is a single step, cost efficient and effective technique for treating traumatic cartilage defects. Chondro-Gide® offers a protective environment for cell differentiation and the formation of new cartilage.




Direct Vertebral Rotation


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction




Anchor Peg Glenoid


Carpometacarpal Joint


Metacarpophalangeal joint


Distal Radioulnar Joint


Degenerative Disc Disease (source: Axiomed LLC)


The term refers to the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing (Albrektsson et al. in 1981) artificial implant. A more recent definition (by Schroeder et al.) defines osseointegration as “functional ankylosis (bone adherence)”, where new bone is laid down directly on the implant surface and the implant …

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Osteolysis is an active resorption of bone matrix by osteoclasts. Although osteoclasts are active during the natural formation of healthy bone the term “osteolysis” specifically refers to a pathological process. Osteolysis may occur around implants by inflammation, immunological response, tumors, cysts or changes in the bone’s structural load.


Posterior Cruciate Ligament

posterior stabilized

A posterior stabilized knee implant replaces the PCL with a cam and post design of the knee replacement that ensures femoral rollback. The advocates of the PS knee design claim more predictable knee ligament balancing and more predictable flexion. The opposition of PS knee designs claim the cam and post design causes additional polyethylene wear, …

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cruciate retaining

A cruciate retaining knee implant leaves an intact posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the back of the knee to help with knee flexion and ligament tension. The advocates of the CR knee design claim less bone removal from the femur, easier femoral component revision, and tighter ligaments in the back of the knee. The opponents …

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= interbody (in spine)


Minimally Invasive Spine (port system or access)


Anterior Lumbar Plate (for spine)




Vertebral Body Replacement (in spine)


Interbody Fusion Device (in spine)


Vertical Compression Fracture (Spine)


Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion


Posterior Cervical Fusion The PCF technique joins the bones in the back of the cervical spine together.


Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion


Minimally Invasive Surgery


Lateral Lumbal Interbody Fusion


Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion ALIF is a procedure where surgeons work on the lower spine from the front and fuse one or more vertebrae together.


Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion is cervical spine surgery from the front of the neck that addresses spinal symptoms.


Bone Morphogenetic Proteins are osteogenous and osteoinductive, as they induce differentiation of tissues. They induce bone building in every tissue.


Osteoinduction involves the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts that then begin new bone formation. The most widely studied type of osteoinductive cell mediators are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).  




De novo production of bone out of pluripotent reserve cells (stem cells), they are present in perivascular tissue and bone and they may activated through morphogene factors. Osteoinductive substances must lead to an ektope bone building at an extraskeletal place.


Demineralized bone matrix A composite of collagenous and noncollagenous proteins and bone growth factors remaining after the extraction of minerals from the bone by a chemical process.


Guided bone regeneration Bone regenerative technique that uses physical means (e. g. membranes) to seal off an anatomic site where bone is to be regenerated. The goal is to direct bone formation and prevent other tissues (e. g. connective tissue) from interfering with osteogenesis.  


The tibia, the shin bone, is the second longest bone in the human skeleton and together with the thinner fibula forms the lower part of the leg.

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