Treatment of an implant surface by acid in order to increase its surface area by subtraction.
Treatment of an implant surface by addition of material, e. g. to increase the surface or build an interactive layer.
allogenic Being genetically different although belonging to or obtained from the same species.
allogeneic Being genetically different although belonging to or obtained from the same species.
or allogenic graft. Graft tissue from genetically dissimilar members of the same species.
Synthetic, inorganic material. Alloplastic graft.
A nonbiologic material such as metal, ceramic, and plastic.
Al2O3 A metallic oxide Single crystal Polycrystal Used eg for dental implants, hip implants.
An anode is an electrode, where electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs (“-“).
Decrease in size of a cell, organ, tissue or part.
Maintaining, restoring or augmenting the volume of tissue with biomaterial, resorbable or non-resorbable.
In transplantation (and blood transfusion), when the donor and recipient are the same person.
Lacking blood vessels.
Any force applied in the direction of the long axis of an implant.
Device helping to confine a grafted area. It can prevent movement of a graft and/or controls the growth of undesirable
The engagement of an implant at the two sides of a bone, being fixed in two cortical areas.
syn.: Absorbable Property of a material that degrades and dissolves in vivo. Its breakdown products are incorporated into normal physiologic
Designed to assist or modify a biological activity.
Capacity of a material to fulfil its function with an appropriate response for a specific application from the receiving host. Quality
Progressive alteration or breakdown of a material in a biological environment.
Progressive alteration of a material in a biological environment.
The quality of a biomaterial that satisfies those functional specifications for which it was designed.
Property of a material that elicits no host response.
The bonding of living tissue to the surface of a biomaterial or implant, which is independent of any mechanical interlocking
Dental The combined apicocoronal height of connective tissue and epithelial attachment. It exists around teeth as well as around dental
Products derived from living tissues (animal or vegetable).
A material intended to interface with the biological System to evaluate, treat, augment or replace tissue, organ or function of the
Scientific field that deals with the mechanical properties of any biomechanical device, device-tissue interface or the properties of tissues themselves.
Able to replicate or imitate a body structure (anatomy) and/or function (physiology).
The ability of an (autogenous) graft to dissolve physiologically.
Graft consisting of an autogenous block of bone, taken from a different site and usually fixed with screws.
Acronym: Basic multicellular unit.
The hard portion of the connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton. It consists of an inorganic component
There are different definitions, non of them with exact reliable data for clinical use: 1, Histological: The “density” is calculated
There are different classifications of bone density (quality) in oral implantology. Lekholm U, Zarb GA: Patient selection and preparation. In:
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing Process for direct preparation of an object from computer-acquired or computer-generated data
At the cathode electrons enter the cell and reduction occurs (“+”).
colony forming unit (stem cells)
= Critical Incident Reporting-System The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of
= Critical Incident Technique see also CIRS
A longitudinal study in which a group, the cohort, is chosen for the presence of a specific characteristic at or
Collagen is the main component of connective tissue. A molecule characterized by a triple helical structure and a high content
Bioabsorbable membrane made from collagen (mainly type I) with the following properties: tolerated by surrounding tissues, semi-permeable, hemostatic, chemotactic.
Combinations of different grafting materials.
Combinations of materials of biological or non-biological origins or both.
Surgical placement of implants using a computer guided system based on information generated from a high resolution computed tomography.
Connective tissue is a basic human tissue. There are many subdivisions. It is found in between other tissues.
The direct migration of bone-building cells through the clot matrix to the implant surface.
Form of ceramic from the calcium carbonate skeleton of coral. It is used as a grafting material.
Surgical technique in which only the bony cortex is surgically cut.
Study that involves the observation of a defined population at a single point in time or time interval.
Measure of percentage of implant success over a period of time.
Measure of percentage of implant survival over a period of time.
Premature opening of a primary surgical tissue closure.
Refers to the time of applying force on an implant after initial placement. This term mostly is used in oral
ISO definition: A device designed to be placed surgically within or on the mandibular or maxillary bone to provide restistance
Syn.: Osteodistraction, callus distraction, callotasis. Formation of new bone between vascular bone surfaces created by an osteotomy and separated by
Area of the body from which a graft is harvested. This can be skin, mucosa, connective tissue, and bone.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a human
Removing an implant.
The dehiscence of soft tissue exposing an implanted material.
The percentage of failures in a study or clinical trial, of a procedure or a device (e. g. implant), which
Fibrin Assisted Soft Tissue Promotion
Progressive weakening of a structure by accumulating embrittlement and crack formation/propagation.
A structural failure caused by multiple loading episodes when all loads lie below the structure´s ultimate strength.
Freeze-dried bone allograft Bone harvested from donor cadavers, washed, immersed in ethanol, frozen in nitrogen, freeze-dried and ground to similar
Finite element analysis
free from infection
A numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics. Software technique used to study stresses and strains on
State of retention of an implant at the time of insertion that results from slight compression of the osteotomy walls
Material or tissue used for implantation or transplantation.
Any highly specific protein that stimulates the division and differentiation of particular types of cells.
Syn.: Healing by primary intention, primary closure. Healing of a wound in which the edges are closely re-approximated. Union or
Syn.: Healing by secondary intention, secondary closure. Healing of a wound in which a gap is left between its edges.
Thrombocytes stop bleeding. They aggregate at the contact with collagen and the proteins from the implant surface and close the
xenogenous Tissue grafts, when donor and recipient belong to different species. A heterologous transplant means ‘between species’ or ‘from one
The quantitative study of the microscopic organization and structure of a tissue (e. g. bone), especially by computer-assisted analysis of
see: Homologous graft
A graft taken from one human subject and transplanted into another. Syn.: Homograft, homogenous graft.
The local or systemic response of the host organism to an implanted material or device.
see: Recipient site.
HU A unit of y-ray attenuation used for CT-scans as a measurement of bone density. Each pixel is assigned a
Human pluripotent stem cells
Insulin-like growth factors
The area of contact between tissues (e. g. bone, connective tissue) and the implant surface
ISQ Measure of implant stability (from 1 to 100, 100 being the highest degree of stability) obtained from resonance frequency
Outside of the living organism or natural system. Usually refers to artificial experimental systems such as cultures or cell-free extras.
Within the living organism or natural system.
The degree of tightness of an implant immediately after placement in the prepared osteotomy. An implant is considered to have
The torque value used to insert a screw-shaped implant into an osteotomy, expressed in Newtons centimeter.
IGF Peptides that behave similarly to insulin and stimulate cell proliferation.
International Organization of Standardization ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member
ISO develops International Standards, such as ISO 9001, but is not involved in their certification, and does not issue certificates. Certificates are
see: Isologous graft.
A transplant between twins.
A tissue graft transplanted from one genetically identical individual to another, as in monozygotic twins. Syn.: Isogeneic graft, isologous graft,
Surface texture of an implant that are randomly distributed, so the surface is identical in all directions.
Implant stability quotient
Force attempting to disengage parts joined by a screw.
Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a
Syn.: Secondary implant failure Failure of an implant after integration has been established. This maybe due to overload or periimplantitis.
Statistical method to describe the survival (e. g. implants) in a sample. The distribution of survival times is divided into
A study in which observations on the same subjects are made at two or more different points in time.
A biomaterial, resorbable or non-resorbable, surgically placed to restore lost bony substance.
A biomaterial, resorbable or non-resorbable, placed surgically on the surface of a bone, with or without loss of tissue, to obtain selective or
An intricate network of natural or synthetic fibers that aids in the reinforcement and development of tissues by supplying a
(arithmetic) Measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the individual values in the group and dividing by
Measure of central tendency. It is the middle score in a distribution or set of ranked scores. When the number
ISO: A medical device is a product, such as an instrument, machine, implant or in vitro reagent, that is intended for
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies measuring specified protocol criteria (usually drawn from the published literature)
Minimally Invasive Surgery
Ratio of stress over strain., when the deformation is elastic. It is a measure of stiffness or flexibility of a
Mesenchyymal Stem Cell
Refers to forces applied off the implant long-axis.
Products made from primary materials of inorganic origin (mineral or synthetic).
Property of a material, that does not degrade over time.
The term refers to the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing (Albrektsson
Osteoconduction occurs when the bone graft material serves as a scaffold for new bone growth that is perpetuated by the
Osteoinduction involves the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts that then begin new bone formation. The most widely
De novo production of bone out of pluripotent reserve cells (stem cells), they are present in perivascular tissue and bone
Osteopromotion involves the enhancement of osteoinduction without the possession of osteoinductive properties. For example, enamel matrix derivative has been shown
Probability that a test statistic will assume a value as extreme as or more extreme than that seen under the
Graft consisting of particles.
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell
Term for inflammatory reactions surrounding a dental implant.
porcine endogenous retroviruses
Growth factors released by platelets that initiate connective tissue healing including bone regeneration and repair. They also increase mitogenesis, angiogenesis
Autologous product derived from whole blood through the process of gradient density centrifugation. Its intended purpose lies in its ability
Retention of a root-form implant from close proximity of the bone. Retention of certain components into an implant.
see: Initial stability
An undifferentiated cell that possesses the ability to transform into one or more types of cells.
Gradual increase in the application of load on an implant.
see: Transitional implant.
A two-dimensional roughness parameter calculated from the experimental profiles after filtering. Ra: The arithmetic average of the absolute value of
see: Regional acceleratory phenomenon
The surgical reopening of a site to improve or observe results obtained from the initial procedure.
Site which received a soft or hard tissue graft. Syn.: Host site.
rhBMP Osteoinductive protein produced by recombinant DNA technology.
RAP A local response to a stimulus in which tissues form 2 to 10 times more rapidly than the normal
Immunological response of incompatibility in a transplanted or implanted material.
Loss of substance or bone by physiologic or pathologic means.
A study designed to observe events that have already occurred.
The nuclear receptor Rev-erbα controls circadian thermogenic plasticity. Gerhart-Hines Z, et al. Nature. 2013. Nature. 2013 Nov 21;503(7476):410-413. doi: 10.1038/nature12642.
Test used to assess the extent of osseointegration of an implant, specifically the shear strength at the bone-implant interface, by
see Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein
There are some risk groups in planning implant surgery, e.g.: Blood disorder, coagulation Tumors Diabetes mellitus HIV Corticosteroids Biphosphonate Medication
A three-dimensional roughness parameter calculated from topographical images. Sa: The arithmetic average of the absolute value of all points of
Grit blasting of an implant surface using sand to increase the surface.
The excavation of tissue to form a shallow shelving depression, usually performed to facilitate drainage from infected areas of bone.
A 3D biocompatible construct that serves as a framework which provides a structure on which tissue is growing. It may
surface-decalcified allogeneic bone
see: Healing by second intention
see: Late implant failure
Stress caused by a load (two forces applied toward one another but not in the same straight line) that tends
Heating a powder below the melting point of any component so as to permit agglomeration and welding of particles by
Inflammation of the sinus maxillaris. Signs include sensitivity of teeth to percussion, fever, and facial swelling. Symptoms may include nasal
Acro.: SD Statistical term. A measure of the variability, or dispersion of a distribution of scores. The more scores cluster
Undifferentiated cell of embryogenic or adult origin that can undergo unlimited division and give rise to one or several different
Syn.: Three dimensional imaging, three-dimensional modeling. Method of creating a three-dimensional model by using lasers driven by CAD software, from
Conditions established by a study protocol for the evaluation of a procedure as a success.
The percentage of success of a procedure or device in a study or clinical trial according to success criteria defined
The topography of an implant surface is defined in terms of form, waviness and roughness. Roughness describes the smallest irregularities
Tool to transfer 3D-planning of implants into the surgical procedure. There exists several types of surgical guides, mor or less
The percentage of survivals in a study or clinical trial in placing implants, defined as implants that are functioning according
Commonly used statistical method to evaluate the differences in means between two groups.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal
Stress caused by a load (two forces applied away from one another in the same straight line) that tends to
see: Transforming growth factor beta
An extruding feature of the body of threaded implants. Geometric parameters: Thread depth, thickness, pitch, face angle, helix angle. Basic
Number of threads per unit length in the same axial plane.
An dental endosseous implant that is inserted laterally, from the facial aspect of the edentulous alveolar ridge.
A laboratory specialized in the harvesting, processing, and sterilization of tissues from humans or animals.
Tissue engineering works with cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological
Surface layer of varying surface composition (e.g. TiO2, TiO4) immediately formed upon exposure of pure metallic titanium and titanium alloy
A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion. A measurement of an instrument capacity to do work
Syn.: TGF-β Transforming growth factor beta is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily. It activates different downstream
The placement of three or more implants with a non-linear alignment of their platform.
Dental Popular term for the act of surgically exposing a submerged implant, following healing from stage-one surgery.
The process of infiltration of blood vessels; regarded as a critical support for the health and maintenance of living tissue
An opening in an implant body that allows for tissue ingrowth for increased retention and stability.
A principle stating that bone will develop the structure most suited to resist those forces acting on it.
heterologous Tissue grafts, when donor and recipient belong to different species.
Syn.: Heterogeneous graft, Heterograft. Grafting material harvested from different species from that of the recipient.
see: Modulus of elasticity
also “Zirconia” ZrO2 physical Density 5,68 g/cm³ Medical used Zirconium dioxides usually come with some dopants, which clearly improve physical
These are 2 examples. For more, have a look in the Glossary!