drug coated balloon Drug-Coated Balloon angioplasty is similar to plain old balloon angioplasty procedurally, but there is the addition of an anti-proliferative medication coating the balloon, as well as an excipient to aid in drug transfer, which may help prevent restenosis.  


extracorporeal life support


extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or extracorporeal life support (ECLS), is used to support patients with insufficient gas exchange in the lungs. It works by removing the carbon dioxide and oxygenating red blood cells. Generally, it is used either post-cardiopulmonary bypass or in late stage treatment of a person with profound heart and/or …

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right ventricular assist device A right ventricular assist device (RVAD) pumps blood from the right ventricle or right atrium into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs. A ventricular assist device stabilizes the heart function after injury, such as a heart attack. It’s also used after severe heart failure that does not improve with medicines. …

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biventricular assist device While left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are common treatment for patients with heart failure, a sizeable portion of LVAD recipients demonstrate clinically significant postoperative right ventricular failure and potentially require a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). (Mechanical Circulatory and Respiratory Support)


The human cardiovascular system consists of heart, blood and blood vessels. It includes the small, pulmonary circulation, the way through the lungs to get the blood oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, through the rest of the body.  


Novolimus™ is an active metabolite of Sirolimus. NOVOLIMUS™ is developed by Elixira Medical Corp. It is a mTOR inhibitor macrocyclic lactone with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties.


Sirolimus (aka “rapamycin”), is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It is immunsuppresiv. It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2) through mTOR inhibition. It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus.


Pacemaker: A formal mode designation–atrial and ventricular pacing, atrial and ventricular sensing, dual response and rate-adaptive, used for dual chamber pacemakers.


Percutaneous coronary intervention (aka arthroplasty) Percutaneous coronary intervention is a procedure used to open blocked coronary arteries (caused by coronary artery disease). It restores blood flow to the heart muscle without open-heart surgery. Angioplasty can be done in an emergency setting such as an acute heart attack or in an elective setting when heart disease …

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A defibrillator is used to treat cardiac dysrhythmias. Specifically it helps for ventricular fibrillation (VF). A defibrillator delivers a dose of electric current to the heart. Manual external defibrillator Manual external defibrillators are used by healthcare professionals. They are used in conjunction with an electrocardiogram to diagnose the cardiac rhythm and then manually determine the …

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A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the natural pacemaker of the heart) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to influence the electrical conduction system of an organ. Traditionally is meant the organ heart, but there are more. The heart´s natural pacemaker in the sinoatrial …

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atrial septal defect An Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a common congenital cardiac defect that consists of a hole in the septum between the two filling chambers of the heart, the atriums.  


patent foramen ovale The blood in a child in the womb is bypassed by a connection between the two atria of the heart. This connection is called the foramen ovale. After birth, the child starts to breathe independently and the connection between the atria closes. In as many as 1 out of 4 people the …

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patent (persistent) ductus arteriosus This is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening, called the ductus arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby’s circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, however, it’s called a patent ductus arteriosus. If it´s …

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Autonomic Regulation Therapy


Phospholipid reduction treatment (PRT) for mitigated calcium absorption The presence of phospholipids in the pericardial tissue play a key role in the calcification process of bioprostheses as their phosphate heads are potential binding sites for circulating calcium ions. The PRT process removes phospholipids using Octanediol, a long chain alcohol that possesses a lipid-soluble tail to …

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ascending aortic prosthesis


aortic valve replacement


A stent is a tiny tube. It is inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open. It is left there permanently or absorbs. Types: by anatomy bilar stent coronary stent esophageal stent nasal stent (not an implant, to be placed by oneself) prostatic stent vascular stent ureteral stent …

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Functional Mitral Regurgitation


Degenerative or Primary Mitral Regurgitation


Mitral Valve Regurgitation


Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair


Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement


Embolic Protection System


Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation


Extracorporal Life Support System


Implantable Loop Recorder   The ILR monitors the electrical activity of the heart.


An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a human tissue). It can be either an anode (“-“) or a cathode (“+”).


Endovascular Aneurysm Repair


Ventricular Assist Device


Implantable cardial defibrillator also for Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Impulse control disorder International Classification of Diseases International List of Causes of Death  


Cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators


Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation


annuloplasty is a surgical technique repairing heart valves

Tissue Heart Valves

Tissue heart valves are made of human or animal (usually porcine, bovine) tissue. types Some tissue valves are mounted on a frame or stent; while others are used directly (stentless). advantage Usually they do not require long-term blood thinner therapy. However, approximately one-third of patients with a tissue valve do not benefit from this, because they have …

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Transcatheter (Aortic) Valve Replacement


Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

Mechanical Heart Valve

durability Mechanical heart valves can last indefinitely (tested over 50,000 years in an accelerated tester) types Caged-ball valve Tilting-disc valves Bileaflet heart valves materials Carbon, titanium, titanium coated with pyrolytic carbon, Teflon (PTFE), polyester, dacron side effects Mechanical heart valves require lifelong treatment with blood thinners (anticoagulants) and periodically blood tests to monitor. adverse effects …

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Heart Valve

Mechanical heart valves and tissue heart valves are used as implants. anatomy The heart has two chambers, each having two valves. The two atrioventricular valves (AV) are called mitral valve (bicuspid valve) and tricuspid valve. The two semilunar valves are called aortic valve and pulmonary valve. types There are two basic types of valves: Mechanical …

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