Neurostimulation is a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. It applies electrical currents, in varying parameters, by means of implanted electrodes to achieve functional activation or inhibition of specific neuronal groups, pathways, or networks. For intracranial neurostimulation, stimulation electrodes are inserted into intracerebral targets in ‘deep brain stimulation’ (DBS) or placed over the cortical convexity for ‘cortical

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A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the natural pacemaker of the heart) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to influence the electrical conduction system of an organ. Traditionally is meant the organ heart, but there are more. The heart´s natural pacemaker in the sinoatrial …

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Autonomic Regulation Therapy


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I/II, Causalgia) According to the National Health Service (NHS), pain associated with CRPS is typically caused by an injury and is usually confined to one limb, but can spread to other parts of the body. Pain symptoms include burning, stabbing or stinging, but may also include a tingling sensation and …

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Dorsal Root Ganglion (Therapy)

Calvarial graft

Bone graft harvested from the superior portion of the cranium. It is most frequently taken from the parietal region, generally on the right side (nondominant hemisphere) behind the coronal suture and approximately 3 cm lateral to the sagittal suture.


Deep Brain Stimulation


Spinal Chord Stimulator Spinal Chord Stimulation


Unconditioned Reflex


An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a human tissue). It can be either an anode (“-“) or a cathode (“+”).


VNS = Vagus Nerve Stimulation source: patient information LivaNova

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