Category: anatomy


The hammer-shaped bony protrusions on the tibia (malleolus medialis) and fibula (malleolus lateralis), which are part of the upper ankle joint as a malleolus fork, are called malleolus.


The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion


The human respiratory system cares for gas exchange.  The respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. Air has to …

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The human cardiovascular system consists of heart, blood and blood vessels. It includes the small, pulmonary circulation, the way through the lungs to get the blood oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, through the rest of the body.  


Urogenital means “belonging to the urinary and sexual organs” or “concerning the urinary and sexual organs”. also: genitourinary system.


A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides. Hernias come in some types. Most commonly they involve the abdomen, specifically the groin.


pelvic organ prolaps Pelvic organ prolapse is when one or more of the organs in the pelvis slip down from their normal position and bulge into the vagina. Find more here: NHS UK, healthtopquestions, Wikipedia (german)


Localized collection of serum, the watery portion of blood. Seroma


The ability to feel something und der the skin with the hand, e. g. an implant.


Death of tissue may be caused by insufficient blood supply, trauma, radiation, chemical agents or infectious disease.


Plastic surgery to raise and reshape sagging (ptotic) breasts into a more elevated position.


Use of radiography (X-rays) of the breast to detect breast cancer. Recommended as a screening technique for early detection of breast cancer.


A mass of blood (usually clotted) confined to a space and caused by a break in a blood vessel.

Breast Reconstruction

A surgery to reconstruct a breast after tissue was removed because of cancer or injury.

Breast Augmentation

Enlargement of the breast by surgical implantation of a breast implant. The first time a breast implant is placed to increase breast size, it is called Primary Augmentation. All subsequent times the implant is replaced, it is called Revision Augmentation.

Body dysmorphic disorder

A psychological condition characterized by excessive worry about an imagined or minor physical flaw to the point that it can interfere with normal daily activities.


Removal and examination of sample tissue for diagnosis.


atrial septal defect An Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a common congenital cardiac defect that consists of a hole in the septum between the two filling chambers of the heart, the atriums.  


patent foramen ovale The blood in a child in the womb is bypassed by a connection between the two atria of the heart. This connection is called the foramen ovale. After birth, the child starts to breathe independently and the connection between the atria closes. In as many as 1 out of 4 people the …

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patent (persistent) ductus arteriosus This is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening, called the ductus arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby’s circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, however, it’s called a patent ductus arteriosus. If it´s …

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A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Membranes can be biological and synthetic.


“Oral” relates to the mouth.

soft tissue

Soft tissue connects, supports or surrounds other structures of the body. Soft tissue includes connective tissue as there are tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat and synovial membranes and as well not connective tissue as muscles, nerves and blood vessels.


Dorsal Root Ganglion (Therapy)

Wolff´s law

A principle stating that bone will develop the structure most suited to resist those forces acting on it.

Stem cell

Undifferentiated cell of embryogenic or adult origin that can undergo unlimited division and give rise to one or several different cell types.

Progenitor cell

An undifferentiated cell that possesses the ability to transform into one or more types of cells.

Growth factor

Any highly specific protein that stimulates the division and differentiation of particular types of cells.


Material or tissue used for implantation or transplantation.


Freeze-dried bone allograft Bone harvested from donor cadavers, washed, immersed in ethanol, frozen in nitrogen, freeze-dried and ground to similar particles ranging from 250 to 750μm. It acts primarily through an osteoconductive process, as inductive proteins, often found in only minute quantities, are only released after the resorption of the mineral.


Premature opening of a primary surgical tissue closure.


The hard portion of the connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton. It consists of an inorganic component (67%, minerals such as calcium phosphate) and an organic component (33%, collagenous matrix and cells) Cortical bone. Syn.: Compact bone. The noncancellous hard and dense portion of bone consisting largely of concentric lamellar osteons and …

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Decrease in size of a cell, organ, tissue or part.

Alveolar process

The portion of bone surrounding and supporting the teeth. Also: Alveolar ridge, Residual ridge, Ridge.

Alveolar defect

A deficiency in the contour of the alveolar ridge. It can be vertical (apicocoronal) and/or horizontal (buccolingual,  mesiodistal)




posterior occipital cervical thoracic


Direct Vertebral Rotation

connective tissue

Connective tissue is a basic human tissue. There are many subdivisions. It is found in between other tissues.






Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction


double vision Lacking coordination of the two eyes results in two pictures. Can be after trauma, dislocation of the eyes or malfunction of muscles, or neuromuscular. Can be first sign of systemic disease. Can be temporarily e. g. after alcoholic intoxication.


Anterior cruciate ligament




The tibia, the shin bone, is the second longest bone in the human skeleton and together with the thinner fibula forms the lower part of the leg.

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